Oral Manifestations in Hospitalized Children and Adolescents Subjected to Antineoplastic Therapy

Patrícia Batista Lopes do NASCIMENTO, Luiz Carlos Oliveira dos SANTOS, Camila Nunes CARVALHO, Carolina Argolo Lôbo ALVES, Suzana Marinho LIMA, Marcella Maria Santos CABRAL

Abstract


Objective: To identify the prevalence of oral manifestations subsequent to antineoplastic therapy and its correlation with complete blood count in children and adolescents admitted in a public hospital in the city of Maceió, AL, Brazil.
Method: This cross-sectional study was undertaken in the Pediatric Oncology outpatient service of a hospital located in Maceió, AL, Brazil. Forty male and female 1-17-year-old oncologic patients subjected to antineoplastic therapy between February and September 2011 were enrolled. A clinical chart was filled out containing data on the medical history, the current disease, dental and nutritional history, oral hygiene habits, results of complete blood counts, including hematocrit, hemoglobin, platelet and leukocyte counts, as well as extra- and intraoral examination performed once or more times. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed using the non-parametric Mann-Whitney test with a significance level of 5%.
Results: There was prevalence of males (57.5%) and solid tumors (45%). Eighty percent of the patients presented some type of oral alteration with predominance of petechiae (40%), followed by mucositis (35.5%), dry mouth (17.5%), ulcers (15%), gingival bleeding (15%), candidiasis (10%), necrotizing ulcer gingivitis (NUG) (10%) and pale mucosa (5%). In 15% of the cases, oral alterations resulted in hospitalizations. There was positive correlation between platelet and leukocyte counts and the presence of petechiae (p<0.05). Gingival bleeding had positive correlation with all complete blood count variables. Patients with grade III and IV mucositis presented positive correlation between leukocytes and platelets. There was a statistically significant difference between the age distribution of patients with or without NUG (p<0.05).
Conclusion: There was high incidence of oral alterations, significance between the hematological exam variables and occurrence oral complications and NUG in the adolescents in this study.

Keywords


Manifestações bucais, quimioterapia, criança, adolescente



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