Clinic-pathological Study and Comparative Analysis of Orofacial Lesions in a Brazilian Population of Children and Adolescents

Paulo Goberlânio de Barros Silva, Galyléia Meneses Cavalcante, Clarissa Pessoa Fernandes, Fabrício Bitú Sousa, Mário Rogério Lima Mota, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes Alves


Objective: To describe the sample of Maxillofacial Complex (MFC) Lesions observed in a Brazilian service diagnostic reference for such lesions, and comparatively analyse observed data across the national and international literature. Material and Methods: A literature review of survey of MFC Lesions in Children and Adolescentes was performed. The keywords used were “Oral, Pathology” and “Child”, and 18 articles were selected. Then, we surveyed the biopsy archives of the Department of Pathology and Legal Medicine and the Oral Pathology Laboratory of the Federal University of Ceará recorded from 1994 to 2010. The inclusion criterion was patients whose age fell within the range of 0-16 years old. Results: From a total of 4,775 histological results, 499 (10.4%) were selected. Most lesions were diagnosed in female patients, and the prevalence increased with age. Benign lesions represented 90.4% of those reported; some patients had mucocele and inflammatory lesions, and malignant lesions accounted for 1.8% of all lesions reported. These data, compared to the selected articles, showed little similarity between populations at the international level. Conclusion: the evaluated population had significant differences compared to the articles reviewed. The international level of distribution has little influence on this prevalence, which indicates the necessity for performing more local surveys to establish reliable epidemiological profiles.

Full Text:



Boyes. Oral Pathology in children. Proc R Soc Med 1950; 43(7):503-6.

Skinner RL, Davenport Jr. WD, Weir, JC, Carr RF. A survey of biopsied oral lesions in pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent 1986; 8(3):163-7.

Mouchrek MMM, Gonçalves LM, Bezerra-Júnior JRS, Maia ECS, Silva RA, Cruz MCFN. Oral and maxillofacial biopsied lesions in Brazilian pediatric patients: a 16-year retrospective study. Rev Odont Ciênc 2011; 26(3):222-6.

Shah SK, Le MC, Carpenter WM. Retrospective review of pediatric oral lesions from a dental school biopsy service. Pediatr Dent 2009; 31(1):14-9.

Wang YL, Chang HH, Chang JYF, Huang GF, Guo MK. Retospective survey of biopsied oral lesions in pediatric patients. J Formos Med Assoc 2009; 108(11):862-71.

Lima GS, Fontes ST, Araújo LMA, Etges A, Tarquinio SB, Gomes AP. A survey of oral and maxillofacial biopsies in children. A single-center retrospective study of 20 years in Pelotas-Brazil. J Appl Oral Sci 2008; 16(6):397-402.

Dhanuthai K, Banrai M, Limpanaputtajak S. A retrospective study of paediatric oral lesions from Thailand. Int Journal of Paediatr Dent 2007; 17(4):248-53.

Jones AV, Franklin CD. An analysis of oral and maxillofacial pathology found in children over a 30-year period. Int J Paediatr Dent 2006; 16(1):19-30.

Sklavounou-Andrikopoulou A, Piperi E, Papanikolaou V, Karakoulakis I. Oral soft tissue lesions in Greek children and adolescents: a retrospective analysis over a 32-year period. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2005; 29(2):175-8.

Gultelkin SE, Tokman B, Turkseven MR. A review of paediatric oral biopsies in Turkey. Int Dent J 2003; 53(1):26-32.

Sousa FB, Etges A, Côrrea L, Mesquita RA, Araújo NS. Pediatric oral lesions: a 15-year review from São Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002; 26(4):413-8.

Lawoyin JO. Paediatric oral surgical pathology service in African population group: a 10 year review. Odontostomatol Trop 2000; 23(89):27-30.

Maia DMF, Merly F, Castro WH, Gomez RS. A survey of oral biopsies in Brazilian pediatric patients. ASDC J Dent Child 2000; 67(2):128-31.

Cavalcante ASR, Marsilio AN, Kühne SS, Carvalho YR. Lesões bucais de tecido mole e ósseo em crianças e adolescentes. Ciênc Odontol Bras 1999; 2(1):67-75.

Chen YK, Lin LM, Huang HC, Lin CC, Yan YH. A retrospective study of oral and maxillofacial biopsy lesions in a pediatric population from southern Taiwan. Pediatr Dent 1998; 20(7):404-10.

Das S, Das AK. A review of pediatric oral biopsies from a surgical pathology service in a dental school. Pediatr Dent 1993; 15(3):208-11.

Keszler A, Gugliemotti MB, Dominguez FV. Oral pathology in children, frequency, distribution and clinical significance. Acta Odontol Latinoam 1990; 5(1):39-48.

Siadati S, Seyedmajidi M, Sharbatdaran M. Frequency of differente oral lesions in children and adolescents in Badol, Nothern Ira. Caspian J Intern Med 2013;4(4):773-6.

Zuñiga MD, Méndez CR, Kauterich RR, Paniagua DC. Paediatric oral pathology in Chilean population: a 15-year review. INt J Paediatr Dent 2013;23(5):346-51.

Lei F, Chen J-Y, Lin L-M, Wang W-C, Huang D-C, Chan C-H, Ho K-Y, Chen Y-K. Retrospective study of biopsied oral and maxillofacial lesions in pediatric patients from Southern Taiwan. J Dental Sci, 2013; doi:

Vale EB, Perez FMMR, Rodrigues GLC, Carvalho EJA, Castro JFL, Perez DEC. A review of oral biopsies in children and adolescents: a clinicopathological study of a case series. J. Clin Exp Dent 2013;5(3):e144-9.

UN, United Nations. Convention on the Rights of the Child; 1989 (Corporate Author). Janeiro de 2012. Disponível em:

WHO, World Health Organization. Young People´s Health – a Challenge for Society: Report of a WHO Study Group on Young People and Health for All. Geneva: 1986. 120p.

Karp I, Paradis G, Lambert M, Dugas E, Dugas E, O’Loughlin J. A prognostic tool to identify adolescents at high risk of becoming daily smorkers. BMC Pediatr [internet] 2011 [cited 15 January 2012]; 11:70; Avaliable in:

Re Cecconi D, Achilli A, Tarozzi M, Lodi G, Demarosi F, Sardella A, et al. Mucoceles of the oral cavity: a large case series (1994-2008) and a literature review. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2010; 15(4):551-6.

Yilmaz AE, Gorpelioglu C, Sarikakioglu E, Dogan DG, Bilici M, Celik N. Prevalence of oral mucosa lesions from birth to two years. Niger J Clin Pract 2011; 14(3):349-53.

Baldani MH, Lopes CML, Scheidt WA. Prevalence of oral alterations in infantis at the public pediatric dental clinics from Ponta Grossa – PR, Brazil. Pesqui Odontol Bras 2011; 15(4):302-7.

Al-Khateeb TH. Benign oral masses in a Northern Jordanian population – a retrospective study. Open Dent J 2009; 3:147-53.

Prockt AP, Schebela CR, Maito FDM, Sant’Ana-Filho M, Rados PV. Odontogenic cysts: analysis of 680 cases in Brazil. Head Neck Pathol 2008; 2(3):150-6.

Fernandes M, Ataide I. Nonsurgical management of periapical lesions. J Conserv Dent 2010; 13: 240-5.

Orem J, Mbidde EK, Lambert B, Sanjose S, Weiderpass E. Burkitt’s lymphoma in Africa, a review of the epidemiology and etiology.African Health Sci 2007;7(3):166-75.

Joss B, Joss N, Bumpous J, Burns C, French CA, Farghaly H. Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma in a 13 year-old child associated with human papillomaviruses 16 and 18: a case report and review of the literature. Head Neck Pathol 2009;3(1):37-41.

Morris LGT, Ganly I. Outcomes of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in pediatric patients. Oral Oncol 2010;46(4):292-6.

Costa FWG, Viana TSA, Cavalcante GM, Barros Silva PG, Cavalcante RB, Nogueira AS, Pereira KMA. A clinicoradiographic and pathological study of pericoronal follicles associated to mandibular third molars. J Craniofac Surg 2014;25(3):283-7.