Assessment of Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) Restorations after Acidic Erosive Challenges: An in vitro Study

Rosangela Dissenha, Juan Lara, Caleb Moreira Shitsuka, Daniela Raggio, Fernanda Correa, Jose Imparato, Maria Salete Correa


Objective: To analyze the marginal adaptation of two different Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC) after erosive challenges. Material and Methods: Sixty sound extracted primary canines were selected and class V cavities were made. Teeth were allocated into 6 groups according to restorative material: 1) high-viscosity GIC (Ketac™Molar Easymix) and 2) resin-modified GIC with nanoparticles (Ketac™N100), low pH beverage erosive challenge (Orange juice and Coca-Cola) or distilled water as control. Thereafter the sample was restored and subjecting to thermocycling. The sample was immersed for a 10-days period for the erosive simulation and then embedded in methylene blue solution during 4 hours. Finally teeth were sectioned for further analysis. Marginal adaptation test was performed by two trained examiners using the Salama et al. criteria. Descriptive and Kruskal-Wallis test (α=5%) were used to analyze the data. Results: The groups treated with Ketac™Molar EasyMix were similar in terms of marginal sealing ability when submitted to Orange juice and Coca-Cola but significantly worse than water. For samples restored with the Ketac™N100 the worst results were found in the Coca-Cola group. Conclusion: Erosive challenges with acidic drinks affected the marginal adaptation of the tested GIC.


Dental marginal adaptation, Glass Ionomer Cements (GIC), Tooth erosion.

Full Text:



Bönecker M, Tenuta LM, Pucca Junior GA, Costa PB, Pitts N. A social movement to reduce caries prevalence in the world. Braz Oral Res 2013; 27(1):5-6.

Ganss C, Young A, Lussi. Tooth wear and erosion: methodological issues in epidemiological and public health research and the future research agenda. A Community Dent Health 2011; 28(3):191-5.

Lara JS, Braga MM, Shitsuka C, Wen CL, Haddad AE. Dental students´and lecturers´perception of the degree of difficulty of caries detection associated learning topics in Brazil. J Educ Eval Health Prof 2015; 12(56):1-6.

Bartlett, DW. The role of erosion in tooth wear: Aetiology, prevention and management. Int Dent J 2005; 55 (4 Suppl):277-84.

Bottenberg P, Ricketts DN, Van Loveren C, Rahiotis C, Schulte AG. Decision-making and preventive non-surgical therapy in the context of a european core curriculum in cariology. Eur J Dent Educ 2011; 15(1 Suppl):32-9.

Bonifacio CC, Kleverlaan CJ, Raggio DP, Werner A, de Carvalho RC, van Amerongen WE. Physicalmechanical properties of glass ionomer cements indicated for atraumatic restorative treatment. Aust Dent J 2009; 54:233-7.

Mickenautsch S, Yengopal V, Banerjee A. Atraumatic restorative treatment versus amalgam restoration longevity: a systematic review. Clin Oral Investig 2009; 14(3):233-40.

Sidhu SK, Nicholson JW. A review of glass-ionomer cements for clinical dentistry. J Funct Biomater 2016; 7(3):2-15.

Amorim RG, Leal SC, Frencken JE. Survival of atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) sealants and restorations: a meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig 2012; 16(2):429-41.

Lussi A, Schlueter N, Rakhmatullina E, Ganss C. Dental erosion – An overview with emphasis on chemical and histopathological aspects. Caries Res 2011; 45(1 Suppl):2-12.

Gambon DL, Brand HS, Veerman EC. Dental erosion in the 21st century: what is happening to nutritional habits and lifestyle in our society? Br Dent J 2012; 213(2):55-7.

Carvalho TS, Lussi A, Jaeggi T, Gambon DL. Erosive tooth wear in children. Monogr Oral Sci 2014; 25:262-78.

Salas CF, Guglielmi CA, Raggio DP, Mendes FM. Mineral loss on adjacent enamel glass ionomer cements restorations after cariogenic and erosive challenges. Arch Oral Biol 2011; 56(10):1014-9.

Abu-Bakr N, Han L, Okamoto A, Iwaku M. Changes in te mechanichal properties and surface texture of compomer immersed various media. J Prosth Dent 2000; 84(4):444-52.

Abu-Bakr N, Han L, Okamoto A, Iwaku M. Evoluation of the surface roughness of compomer by laser escanning microscopy. Dent Mat J 2001; 20(2):172-80.

Salama FS; Riad MI; Megid FYA. Microleakage and marginal gap formation of glass ionomer resin restorations. J Clin Pediatr Dent 1995; 20(1):31-36.

Eichimiller FC, Marjenhoff WA. Fluoride-releasing dental restorative materials. Oper Dent 1998; 23:218-28.

Mount GJ. Glass-ionomer cements: past, present and future. Oper Dent 1994; 19:82-90.

Crisp S, Lewis BG, Wilson AD. Characterization of glass-ionomer cements. A study of erosion an water absorption in both neutral and acidid media. J Dent 1980; 8(1):68-74.

Deshpande SD, Hugar SM. Dental erosion in children: An increasing clinical problem. J Ind Soc Prev Dent 2004; 22(3):118-27.

Walton, R. Microleakage of restorative materials. Oper Dent 1987; 138-9.

Liporoni P, Paulillo LA, Cury JA, Dos Santos Dias CT, Paradella TC. Surface finishing of resin-modified glass ionomer. Gen Dent 2003; 51(6):541-43.

Zaia AA, Nakagawa R, De Quadros I, Gomes BP, Ferraz CC, Teixeira FB et al. An in vitro evaluation of four materials as barriers to coronal microleakage in root-filled teeth. Int Endod J 2002; 35:729-34.

Wadenya R, Mante FK. An in vitro comparision of marginal microleakage of alternative restorative treatment and convencional glass ionomer restorations in extracted permanent molars. Pediatr Dent 2007; 29(4):303-7.

Crim GA, Garcia-Godoy F. Microleakage: the effect of storage and cycling duration. J Prosthet Dent 1987; 57(5):574-6.

Eisenburger M, Addy M, Robbach A. Acidic solubility of luting cements. J Dent 2003; 31(2):137-42.

Braga SR, De Faria DL, De Oliveira E, Sobral MA. Morphological and mineral analysis of dental enamel after erosive challenge in gastric juice and orange juice. Microsc Res Tech 2011; 74(12):1083-7.

Nomoto R, McCabe JF. A simple acid erosion test for dental water-based cements. Dent Mater 2001; 17(1):53-9.

Imparato JC, Garcia A, Bonifácio CC, Scheidt L, Raggio DP, Mendes FM, Vedovello Filho M. Color stability of esthetic ion-releasing restorative materials subjected to pH variations. J Dent Child 2007; 74(3):189-93.

Cenci MS, Tenuta LM, Pereira-Cenci T, Del Bel Cury AA, ten Cate JM, Cury JA. Effect of microleakage and fluoride on enamel-dentine demineralization around restorations. Caries Res 2008; 42(5):369-79.

Zeman LE, Brizuela HG, Nieva N. Solubilidade de ionómeros vítreos y ionómeros vítreos resinas: efectos de la erosión ácida. Rev Assoc Odontol Argent 2003; 91(11):52-6.