Levels of Empathy Orientation after the Implementation of a New Curriculum

Ana María Erazo-Coronado, Alfredo De la Cruz-Villa, Esther Durán-González, Felipe El Forzoli-Dau, Fernando Viaña-Bermúdez, Víctor Díaz-Narváez, Aracelis Calzadilla-Núñez

Abstract


Objective: To compare the level of empathy orientation of the students in the Dentistry Program from the Universidad Metropolitana according to gender and levels of education after the implementation of a new curriculum. Material and Methods: An exploratory and transversal research was made. The studied population are the students from the first and the fifth academic year in the Dentistry Undergraduate Program from the Universidad Metropolitana (Barranquilla, Colombia) (n = 371, N = 482; 76.97% of the population) First: 92; Second: 83; Third: 60; Fourth: 71 and Fifth: 65, being females = 235 and males = 136. Data collection was done in March 2016 for the present study and in 2012.  The Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy was applied to participants. Results: For the "Academic Years" factor, the means in the first undergraduate years are similar with an increase in the last two undergraduate years; females have superior values than males. However, the behavior of these means is different when analyzing the combined levels of both factors. The female gender increases steadily in the first four years and decreases in the fifth year; The male gender goes down from first to second place and increases steadily until the fifth year surpassing the female in this last year. Conclusion: The general results obtained on empathy have improved compared to those results from 2012. The questions that obtained significant scores were those related to the cognitive component. This could be explained by the incorporation of a greater number of community activities into vulnerable population.


Keywords


Dentistry; Empathy; Education, Graduate.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Gerstner J. La comunicación médico-paciente. Rev Colomb Ortop Traumatol 2002; 16 (3):6-7.

Stewart MA. Effective physician-patient communication and health outcomes: A review. CAJM 1995; 152(9):1423-33.

Ogle J, Bushnell JA, Caputi P. Empathy is related to clinical competence in medical care. Med Educ 2013; 47(8):824-33. doi: 10.1111/medu.12232.

Neuwirth ZE. Physician empathy. Should we care? Lancet 1997; 350(9078):606. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(05)63323-5.

Ventura FG, Huerta BQ, Pinedo ML, Vergaray JM, Narváez VPD, Zamorano A, Rivera I. Measuring the level of empathic perception of students of the Faculty of Dentistry Robert Beltrán. Cayetano Heredia Peruvian University. Rev Estomatol Herediana 2012; 22(2):91-9.

Erazo Coronado AM, Alonso LM, Rivera I, Zamorano A, Díaz VP. Measurement of empathetic orientation in dentistry students of Metropolitana University of Barranquilla (Colombia). Salud Uninorte 2012; 28(3):354-63.

Bullen M, Salazar L, Díaz-Narváez VP. Empathic orientation of dental students from the University of Panama (Republic of Panama). Salud Uninorte 2015; 31(2):266-75. doi: 10.14482/ sun.30.1.4309.

Alonso LM, Caro SE, Erazo AM, Díaz-Narváez VP. Measurement of empathetic orientation in medicine students of Universidad del Norte. Barranquilla (Colombia). Salud Uninorte 2013; 29(1):22-33.

Galán JM, Romero R, Morillo MS, Alarcón M. Decreasing empathy in nursing students and analysis of possible factors involved. Psicología Educativa 2014; 20(1):53-60. doi: 10.1016/j.pse.2014.05.007.

Carrasco DE, Bustos A, Díaz-Narváez V. Orientación empática en estudiantes de odontología chilenos. Rev Estomatol Herediana 2012; 22(3):145-51.

Bilbao J, Alcocer A, Salazar G, Rivera I, Zamorano A, Díaz V. Measurement of empathetic orientation in Dentistry students of Fundación Universitaria San Martín. Puerto Colombia (Atlántico, Colombia). Salud Uninorte 2013; 29(1):34-41.

Ugalde IR, Bulboa RA, Arancibia AZ, Díaz-Narváez VP. Measurement of empathetic orientation in Dentistry students. Salud Uninorte 2011; 27(1):63-72.

Moreto G, González-Blasco P, Piscina L, Craice-de Benedetto MA. Empathy erosion of medical students: Report of a study conducted in one medical school in São Paulo, Brazil. Atem Fam 2014; 21 (1):16-9. doi: 10.1016/S1405-8871(16)30005-0.

Alcorta-Garza A, González-Guerrero JF, Tavitas-Herrera SE, Rodríguez Lara FJ, Hojat M. Validación de la escala de empatía Médica de Jefferson en estudiantes de medicina mexicanos. Salud Mental 2005; 28(5):57-63.

Silva Urday H, Rivera Ugalde I, Zamorano Arancibia A, Díaz-Narváez VP. Evaluation of empathetic orientation in dentistry students of Finis Terrae University in Santiago, Chile. Rev Clin Periodoncia Implantol Rehabil Oral 2013; 6 (3): 130-133. doi: 10.1016/S0718-5391(13)70136-8.

Silva MG, Arboleda Castillo J, Díaz-Narváez VP. Orientación empática en estudiantes de odontología de la Universidad Central del Este. Odontoestomatología 2013; 15(22):24-33.

Jiménez LS, Guevara MP, Ugalde IR, Arancibia AZ, Narváez VPD. Evaluation of empathetic orientation in Odontology students. Educ Med Super 2013; 27(3):216-25.

Martínez FDG, Díaz-Narváez VP, Vergara KA, Cárdenas SD, Amador LRT, Anaya MM. Distribution of empathetic orientation among dentistry students of Cartagena, Colombia. Rev Salud Pública 2015; 17(3):404- 15. doi: 10.15446/rsap.v17n3.37591.

Beattie A, Durham J, Harvey J, Steele J, McHanwell S. Does empathy change in first-year dental students? Eur J Dent Educ 2012; 16(1):111-16.

Prabhu S, Kumar S, Prasanth S. Standing in patients’ shoes - survey on empathy among dental students in India. J Educ Ethics Dent 2014; 4(2):69-73. doi: 10.4103/0974-7761.148990.

Babar MG, Omar H, Lim LP, Khan SA, Mitha S, Ahmad SFB, Hasan SS. An assessment of dental students’ empathy levels in Malaysia. Int J Med Educ 2013; 4:223-9. doi: 10.5116/ijme.5259.4513.

Díaz-Narváez VP, Muñoz-Gámbaro G, Duarte-Gómez N, Reyes-Martínez MC, Caro SE, Calzadilla-Núñez A, Palacio LMA. Empatía en estudiantes de enfermería de la Universidad Mayor, sede Temuco, IX región, Chile. Aquichan 2014; 14(3):388-402. doi: 10.5294/aqui.2014.14.3.9.

Mejía MA, Poveda JM, Paoli M, Díaz V. Empathic behavior in health science students. University of Los Andes. Fermentum. Rev Venez Sociol Antropol 2012; 23(67):203-20.

Park KH, Roh H, Suh DH, Hojat M. Empathy in Korean medical students: Findings from a nationwide survey. Teach Med 2015; 37(10):943-8. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2014.956058.

Schwartz B, Bohay R. Can patients help teach professionalism and empathy to dental students? Adding patient videos to a lecture course. J Dent Educ 2012; 76(2):174-84.

Huberman J, Rodríguez MP, González S, Díaz-Narváez VP. Empathetic orientation levels in odontology students of the Universidad del Desarrollo, sede Santiago (Chile). Rev Clin Periodoncia Implantol Rehabil Oral 2014; 7(3):169-74. doi: 10.1016/j.piro.2014.11.001.

Salcedo-Rioja MR, Díaz-Narváez VP. Empathy in dental students of National University of San Marcos (Peru). Salud Uninorte 2015; 31(3):565-74. doi: 10.14482/sun.31.3.6801

Bilbao JL, Iglesias JE, Díaz-Narváez VP, Crespo-Camacho S, Alonso LM, Alcocer A. Empathic guidance in medical students of the Universidad Libre and San Martin, Barranquilla, Colombia. Rev Fac Med 2015; 63(4):657-63. doi: 10.15446/revfacmed.v63.n4.49715.

Silva MG, Arboleda Castillo J, Díaz-Narváez VP. Empathic orientation observed in medical students at one university in the Dominican Republic. Educ Med Super 2014; 28(1):74-83.

Montilva M, García M, Torres A, Puertas M, Zapata E. Empathy according to Jefferson scale in medical and nursing students in Venezuela. Inv Ed Med 2015; 4(16):223-8. doi: 10.1016/j.riem.2015.04.006.

Díaz-Narváez VP, Salas D, Bracho F, Ocaranza J. Empathy in students of specialty in physical therapy, Universidad Mayor in Temuco, Chile. Rev Cienc Salud 2015; 13(3):383-93. doi: 10.12804/revsalud13.03.2015.05.

Brown T, Williams B, Boyle M, Molloy A, McKenna L, Molloy L, Lewis B. Levels of empathy in undergraduate occupational therapy students. Occup Ther Int 2010; 17(3):135-41. doi: 10.1002/oti.297.

Varela de Villalba TB, Villalba RH, Gargantini P, Quinteros S, Villalba SB, Díaz Narváez VP. Levels of emphatic orientation in dental students of the Catholic University of Cordoba, Argentina (UCC). Claves Odontol 2012; 19(70):15-22.

Remón-Torres MA, Remón-Torres MM, Tataje-Lavanda MK. Level of empathy to patient two internal medicine peruvian hospitals. Rev Med Panacea 2013; 3(1):2-5.

Anaya MVM, Amador LRT, Martínez FG. Factors related to empathy in medical students at the University of Cartagena. Rev Clín Med Fam 2015; 8(3):185-92. doi: 10.4321/S1699-695X2015000300003.

Boyle DA. Countering compassion fatigue: A requisite nursing agenda. Online J Issues Nurs 2011; 16(1):2. doi: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol16No01Man02.

Vélez CD, Chinchay JLS, Bravo VR, Cotrina YAG, Salazar RMF, Vasquéz CDD. Empathy in medical students from the Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo: May-June 2011. Rev Cuerpo Méd HNAAA 2012; 5(3):17-21.

Fernández-Pinto I, López-Pérez B, Márquez M. Empathy: Measures, theories and applications under review. Anales Psicol 2008; 24(2):284-98.

Rosenzweig J, Blaizot A, Cougot N, Pegon-Machat E, Hamel O, Apelian N, Bedos C, Munoz-Sastre MT, Vergnes JN. Effect of a person-centered course on the empathy ability of dental students. J Dent Educ 2016; 80(11):1337-48.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2018.181.28

PBOCI is a member of CrossRef and all the content of its journals are linked by DOIs through CrossRef.