A Radiographic Study of Prevalence and Location of Enamel Pearls in a Saudi Arabian Adolescent Population

Ibrahim A. Al-Zoubi, Santosh R Patil, Mohammad Khursheed Alam, Suneet Khandelwal4Suneet Khandelwal, Asmatullah Khattak, Raghuram P H

Abstract


Objective: To determine the prevalence of enamel pearls on panoramic radiographs and to explore any potential correlation between the occurrences of enamel pearls with gender, jaw and tooth involved. Material and Methods: Digital panoramic radiographs of 642 adolescents aging 12–19 years were examined for the presence of enamel pearls. The location of involved tooth in terms of jaw and side and gender were recorded. Statistical analysis was carried out by applying Chi-square tests with the Yates correction. The level of significance was set at 5%. Results: The person prevalence of enamel pearls was 4.82% of patients and tooth prevalence was 0.96%. No statistical significant difference was observed between maxillary and mandibular arches and no gender and side predilection was observed. Most of the enamel pearls were seen in maxillary third molars (4.76%) and mandibular third molars (2.68%), followed by maxillary first molars (2.68%) and mandibular second molars (1.95%). No enamel pearl was observed in any of the anterior teeth or in any of the deciduous teeth. Conclusion:  The prevalence of enamel pearls was observed in 4.28% of patients and 0.96% of teeth. They were most frequently seen on molars with no predilection for gender, jaw and side.


Keywords


Radiography, Panoramic; Dental Enamel; Prevalence.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Sharma S, Malhotra S, Baliga V, Hans M. Enamel pearl on an unusual location associated with localized periodontal disease: A clinical report. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2013; 17(6):796-800. doi: 10.4103/0972-124X.124520.

Zenóbio EG, Vieira TR, Bustamante RPC, Gomes HE, Shibli JA, Soares RV. Enamel pearls implications on periodontal disease. Case Rep Dent 2015; 2015: 236462. doi: 10.1155/2015/236462.

Pardiñas López S, Warren RN, Bromage TG, Matei IC, Khouly I. Treatment of an unusual non-tooth related enamel pearl (EP) and 3 teeth-related EPs with localized periodontal disease without teeth extractions: A case report. Compend Contin Educ Dent 2015; 36(8):592-9.

Mao X. Root-like enamel pearl: a case report. J Med Case Rep 2014; 8:248. doi: 10.1186/1752-1947-8-248.

Romeo U, Palaia G, Botti R, Nardi A, Del Vecchio A, Tenore G, et al. Enamel pearls as a predisposing factor to localized periodontitis. Quintessence Int 2011; 42(1):69-71.

Sutalo J, Ciglar I, Bacic M. The incidence of enamel projections on the roots of the permanent teeth. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 1989; 99(2):174-80.

Cavanha AO. Enamel pearls. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1965; 19:373-82. doi: 1016/0030-4220(65)90049-6.

Risnes S. Ectopic tooth enamel. An SEM study of the structure of enamel in enamel pearls. Adv Dent Res 3(2):258-64,1989. doi: 10.1177/08959374890030022701.

Wu li. A case report of right maxillary third molar with multiple enamel pearls. J Pract Stomatol 2013; 29(4):510.

Hou GL, Tsai CC. Cervical enamel projection and intermediate bifurcational ridge correlated with molar furcation involvements. J Periodontol 1997; 68(7):687-93. doi: 10.1902/jop.1997.68.7.687.

Versiani MA, Cristescu RC, Saquy PC, Pécora JD, de Sousa-Neto MD. Enamel pearls in permanent dentition: case report and micro-CT evaluation. Dentomaxillofac Radiol 2013; 42(6):20120332. doi: 10.1259/dmfr.20120332.

Chrcanovic BR, Abreu MH, Custódio AL. Prevalence of enamel pearls in teeth from a human teeth bank. J Oral Sci 2010; 52(2):257-60. doi: 10.2334/josnusd.52.257.

Darwazeh A, Hamasha AA. Radiographic evidence of enamel pearls in jordanian dental patients. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000; 89(2):255-8. doi: 10.1067/moe.2000.103524.

Akgül N, Caglayan F, Durna N, Sümbüllü MA, Akgül HM, Durna D. Evaluation of enamel pearls by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal 2012; 17(2):e218-e222. doi: 10.4317/medoral.17475.

Çolak H, Hamidi MM, Uzgur R, Ercan E, Turkal M. Radiographic evaluation of the prevalence of enamel pearls in a sample adult dental population. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci 2014; 18(3):440-4.

Dahlberg AA. The East Greenland Eskimo dentition, numerical variations and anatomy. Am JPhys Anthropol 1949; 7:477-9.

Kaminagakura E, Salmon CR, Fonseca DC, Lopes MCA, Tango RN. Prevalence and microscopic features of enamel pearls from permanent human molars. Braz J Oral Sci 2011; 10(4):268-71. doi: 10.20396/bjos.v10i4.8641613.

Risnes S, Segura JJ, Casado A, Jimenez-Rubio A. Enamel pearls and cervical enamel projections on 2 maxillary molars with localized periodontal disease: case report and histologic study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2000; 89(4):493-7. doi: 10.1016/S1079-2104(00)70131-4.

Goldstein AR. Enamel pearls as contributing factor in periodontal breakdown. J Am Dent Assoc 1979; 99(2):210-1.

Matthews DC, Tabesh M. Detection of localized tooth-related factors that predispose to periodontal infections. Periodontol 2000 2004; 34:136-50. doi: 10.1046/j.0906-6713.2003.003429.x.




PBOCI is a member of CrossRef and all the content of its journals are linked by DOIs through CrossRef.