Production of Medical Grade Silicone for Facial Prosthesis with Bactericidal Properties from the Inclusion of Poly (Diallyldimethylammonium Chloride): An in Vitro Study.

Rennan Luiz Oliveira dos Santos, Juan Gonzalo Aliaga Gamarra, Nilton Lincopan, Denise Freitas Siqueira Petri, Claudete Rodrigues Paula, Neide Pena Coto, Reinaldo Brito Dias


Objective:To evaluate the inclusion capacity and bactericidal efficiency of diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (PDADMAC) diluted in tetrahydrofuran (THF) upon inclusion in the medical grade silicone polymer structure. Material and Methods:It was diluted the PDADMAC in THF at the concentration of 4wt%. It was included in the silicon paste during its vulcanization process. The contact angle measurements were performed to evaluate whether the biocide inclusion into the silicon paste was successful. All samples were sterilized with gamma radiation at 25KGy-dosage prior to the microbiological tests. Microbiological testing strictly followed the Antibacterial products - Test for antibacterial activity and efficacy JIS Z 2801: 201010 and the used of specific bacteria, as Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and Escherichia coli ATCC 8739. Results: The results showed that PDADMAC, when dissolved in THF at 4wt%, displayed good incorporation in medical silicone and a broad-spectrum antibacterial response. The results of the tests using Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P showed that the silicone with no biocide addition did not present antibacterial activity. In contrast, the experimental group plus 2 mL of PDADMAC would have an ideal antibacterial response. Conclusion:Medical grade silicone can be used as a material with antibacterial properties, since it has been able to keep PDADMAC compound attached to its structure, thus acquiring antimicrobial property.


Dental Materials; Silicone Elastomers; Maxillofacial Prosthesis.

Full Text:



Goiato MC, Pesqueira AA, Santos DM, Dekon SFC. Evaluation of the hardness and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones followed by disinfection. Braz Oral Res 2009; 23(1):49-53.

Stevens KNJ, Crespo-Biel O, van den Bosch EEM, Dias AA, Knetsch MLW, Aldenhoff YBJ, van der Veen FH, Maessen JG, Stobberingh EE, Koole LH. The relationship between the antimicrobial effect of catheter coatings containing silver nanoparticles and the coagulation of contacting blood. Biomaterials 2009; 30(22):3682-90.

Venkatesan N, Shroff S, Jayachandran K, Doble M. Polymers as ureteral stents. J Endourol 2010; 24(2):191-8.

Rodrigues L, Banat IM, Teixeira J, Oliveira R. Strategies for the prevention of microbial biofilm formation on silicone rubber voice prostheses. J Biomed Mater Res Part B 2007; 81B(2):358-70.

Rosenthal VD, Maki DG, Salomao R, Alvarez-Moreno C, Mehta Y, Higuera F, Cuellar LE, Arikan OA, Abouqal R, Leblebicioglu H. Device-associated nosocomial infections in 55 intensive care units of 8 developing countries. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145(8):582-91.

Jacobsen SM, Stickler DJ, Mobley HLT, Shirtliff ME. Complicated catheter-associated urinary tract infections due to Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Clin Microbiol Rev 2008; 21(1):26-59.

Mansur-Azzam M, Hosseinidousta Z, Wooa SG, Vyhnalkova R, Eisenbergb A, Theo GM. Bacteria survival probability in bactericidal filter paper. Colloids Surf B: Biointerfaces 2014; 117(1):383-8.

Meier M, Suppiger A, Eberl L, Seeger S. Functional silver-silicone-nanofilament-composite material for water disinfection. Small 2017; 13(4):1601072.

Japanese Industrial Standard. JIS Z 2801. Antibacterial products - test for antibacterial activity and efficacy. Tokio: Japanese Industrial Standard; 2010.

Kurtulmus H, Kumbuloglu O, Ozcan M, Ozdemir G, Vural C. Candida albicans adherence on silicone elastomers: effect of polymerisation duration and exposure to simulated saliva and nasal secretion. Dent Mater 2010; 26(1):76-82.

Lambert JL, Fina LR. US Patent No 3,817,860. Washington: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 1974. Available at: 1&u=%2Fnetahtml%2FPTO%2Fsrchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=3817860PN.&OS=PN/3817860&RS=PN/3817860. [Accessed January 10, 2016].

Kenawy El-R, Abdel-Hay FI, El-Raheem A, El-Shanshoury R, El-Newehy MH. Biologically active polymers: Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of modified glycidyl methacrylate polymers having a quaternary ammonium and phosphonium groups. J Controll Release 1998; 50(1-3):145-52.

Murtough SM, Hiom Sj, Palmer M, Russel AD. Biocide rotation in the healthcare setting: Is there a care for policy implementation? J Hosp Infect 2001; 48(1):1-6.

Wang B, Ye Z, Tang Y, Han Y, Lin Q, Liu H, Chen H, Nan K. Fabrication of nonfouling, bactericidal, and bacteria corpse release multifunctional surface through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization. Int J Nanomedicine 2016; 12:111-25.

Helaly FM, El-Sawy SM, Hashem AI, Khattab AA, Mourad RM. Synthesis and characterization of nanosilver-silicone hydrogel composites for inhibition of bacteria growth. Cont Lens Anterior Eye 2017; 40(1):59-66.

Lu G, Wu D, Fu R. Studies on the synthesis and antibacterial activities of polymeric quaternary ammonium salts from dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate. React Funct Polym 2007; 67(4):355-66.

Iconomopoulou SM, Andreopoulou AK, Soto A, Kallitsis JK, Voyiatzis GA. Incorporation of low molecular weight biocides into polystyrene-divinyl benzene beads with controlled release characteristics. J Controll Release 2005; 102(1):223-33.

Oliveira RO. Preparação e avaliação biocida de compósitos à base de resinas reticuladas contendo nanopartículas de prata [Dissertação]. Rio de Janeiro: Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; 2010. [In Portuguese]

Pinese C, Jebors S, Echalier C, Licznar-Fajardo P, Garric X, Humblot V, Calers C, Martinez J, Mehdi A, Subra G. Simple and specific grafting of antibacterial peptides on silicone catheters. Adv Healthc Mater 2016; 5(23):3067-73.

Lim K, Chua RR, Bow H, Tambyah PA, Hadianoto K, Leong SS. Development of a catheter functionalized by a polydopamine peptide coating with antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Act Biomater 2015; 15:127-38.

Sinclair KD, Pham TX, Farnsworth RW, Williams DL, Loc-Carrillo C, Horne LA, et al. Development of a broad spectrum polymer-released antimicrobial coating for the prevention of resistant strain bacterial infections. J Biomed Mater Res A 2012; 100(10):2732-8.

Han MF, Zepeda-Velazquez L, Brook MA. Tunable, antibacterial activity of silicone polyether surfactants. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 2015; 132:216-24.

Wang R, Neoh KG, Shi Z, Kang ET, Tambyah PA, Chiong E. Inhibition of Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis adhesion and biofilm formation on medical grade silicone surface. Biotechnol Bioeng 2012; 109(2):336-45.

Sanches LM, Petri DFS, Carrasco LDM, Carmona-Ribeiro AM. The antimicrobial activity of free and immobilized poly (diallyldimethylammonium) chloride in nanoparticles of poly (methylmethacrylate). J Nanobiotechnol 2015; 13:58.

Rocha VMS, dos Santos RLO, Petri DFS, Dias RB, Coto NP. Use of biocides on the surface of materials for making bucomaxillofacial prostheses. Rev Cir Traumatol Buco-Maxilo-Fac 2017; 17(1):21-24.