Assessing Expectant Mothers’ Knowledge and Beliefs about Oral Healthcare During Infancy and Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Survey in Saudi Arabia

Osama Abu-Hammad, Sara M Binsaad, Rafal A Gasim, Safa Jambi, Razan Haidary, Amal Afandi, Shaden Abu-Hammad, Najla Dar-Odeh

Abstract


Objective: To evaluate expectant mothers’ knowledge and beliefs on oral healthcare of infants. It also aimed at exploring their knowledge on oral health care during pregnancy and the possible relationship between oral health and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was conducted among expectant mothers attending antenatal clinics in Al Madinah, Saudi Arabia in summer, 2017. Questions collected data on sociodemographic characteristics of the study sample as well as basic knowledge on oral healthcare during pregnancy and infancy. There were also questions on knowledge about adverse pregnancy outcomes that may be associated with poor oral health. Results: A convenient sample of 360 pregnant women participated in the study. A percentage of 79.7% showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants while a percentage of 8.9% only showed a good level of knowledge in oral healthcare during pregnancy and pregnancy outcomes. Education level and employment status were significantly associated the good level of knowledge in oral healthcare of infants (p=0.000, and 0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Most of expectant mothers, particularly educated and employed ones, have good knowledge on oral healthcare of infants, however, the majority lacked sufficient knowledge on pregnancy outcomes and oral healthcare during pregnancy.

Keywords


Infant; Pregnancy; Oral Health; Pregnancy Outcome.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Shaikh GK, Ibrahim GH, Fayed AA, Al-Mandeel H. Grand multiparity and the possible risk of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes: A dilemma to be deciphered. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2017; 17:310. doi: 10.1186/s12884-017-1508-0.

Vamos CA, Walsh ML, Thompson E, Daley EM, Detman L, DeBate R. Oral-systemic health during pregnancy: Exploring prenatal and oral health providers' information, motivation and behavioral skills. Matern Child Health J 2015; 19(6):1263-75. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1632-7.

Stelmakh V, Slot DE, van der Weijden GA. Self-reported periodontal conditions among Dutch women during pregnancy. Int J Dent Hyg 2017; 15(4):e9-e15. doi: 10.1111/idh.12210.

Rakchanok N, Amporn D, Yoshida Y, Harun-Or-Rashid M, Sakamoto J. Dental caries and gingivitis among pregnant and non-pregnant women in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Nagoya J Med Sci 2010; 72(1-2):43-50.

George A, Dahlen HG, Reath J, Ajwani S, Bhole S, Korda A, Chok HN, Miranda C, Villarosa A, Johnson M. What do antenatal care providers understand and do about oral health care during pregnancy: A cross-sectional survey in New South Wales, Australia. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2016; 16:382. doi: 10.1186/s12884-016-1163-x.

Desai K, Desai P, Duseja S, Kumar S, Mahendra J. Significance of maternal periodontal health in preeclampsia. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015; 5(2):103-7. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.155734.

Pozo E, Mesa F, Ikram MH, Puertas A, Torrecillas-Martinez L, Ortega-Oller I, Magan-Fernandez A, Rodriguez-Martinez MD, Padial-Molina M, Sanchez-Fernandez E et al. Preterm birth and/or low birth weight are associated with periodontal disease and the increased placental immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory markers. Histol Histopathol 2016; 31(2):231-7. doi: 10.14670/HH-11-671.

Mattera MS, Chiba FY, Mota MS, Pereira RF, Ervolino E, Chaves Neto AH, Salzedas LM, Scaramele NF, Silva CA, Okamoto MM et al. Maternal periodontitis decreases plasma membrane GLUT4 content in skeletal muscle of adult offspring. Life Sci 2016; 148:194-200. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2016.02.010.

Gomes-Filho IS, Pereira EC, Cruz SS, Adan LF, Vianna MI, Passos-Soares JS, Trindade SC, Oliveira EP, Oliveira MT, Cerqueira E de M et al. Relationship among mothers' glycemic level, periodontitis, and birth weight. J Periodontol 2016; 87(3):238-47. doi: 10.1902/jop.2015.150423.

Kell DB, Kenny LC. A dormant microbial component in the development of preeclampsia. Front Med 2016; 3:60. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2016.00060.

Hultquist AI, Bagesund M. Dentin caries risk indicators in 1-year-olds. A two year follow-up study. Acta Odontol Scand 2016; 74(8):613-9. doi: 10.1080/00016357.2016.1227085.

Al-Malik MI, Holt RD, Bedi R. Prevalence and patterns of caries, rampant caries, and oral health in two- to five-year-old children in Saudi Arabia. J Dent Child 2003; 70(3):235-42.

Wyne AH, Al-Ghannam NA, Al-Shammery AR, Khan NB. Caries prevalence, severity and pattern in pre-school children. Saudi Med J 2002; 23(5):580-4.

Congiu G, Campus G, Luglie PF. Early Childhood Caries (ECC). Prevalence and background factors: A review. Oral Health Prev Dent 2014; 12(1):71-6. doi: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a31216.

Poureslami HR, Van Amerongen WE. Early Childhood Caries (ECC): An infectious transmissible oral disease. Indian J Pediatr 2009; 76(2):191-4. doi: 10.1007/s12098-008-0216-1.

Niji R, Arita K, Abe Y, Lucas ME, Nishino M, Mitome M. Maternal age at birth and other risk factors in early childhood caries. Pediatr Dent 2010; 32(7):493-8.

El Khateeb SM, Abu-Hammad O, Fadel H, Dar-Odeh N. A Retrospective analysis of radiographic jaw findings in young women; Prevalence and predictors. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2017; 7(1): 22-7. doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.200707.

Khateeb S, Hamdan B, Gafar A, Jaber S, Dar-Odeh N. Prevalence of dental caries among young women in central western region of Saudi Arabia. Int J Adv Dent Med Sci 2015; 1(2):46-9.

Dar-Odeh NS, Aleithan FA, Alnazzawi AA, Al-Shayyab MH, Abu-Hammad SO, Abu-Hammad OA. Factors affecting oral health determinants in female university students: A cross-sectional survey in Saudi Arabia. Int J Adolesc Med Health 2017; 1. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2017-0084.

Gaffar BO, El Tantawi M, Al-Ansari A, AlAgl AS. Association between oral health knowledge and practices of Saudi pregnant women in Dammam, Saudi Arabia. East Mediterr Health J 2016; 22(6):411-6.

Assery MK. A 22 year comparison survey of dental knowledge in Al-Jubail antenatal clinic population. Saudi Dent J 2016; 28(2):86-90. doi: 10.1016/j.sdentj.2016.01.002.

Dar-Odeh N, Alnazzawi A, Shoqair N, Al-Shayyab MH, Abu-Hammad O. Waterpipe tobacco smoking among dental practitioners: Prevalence and health perceptions. Tob Use Insights 2016; 9:29-33.

Dar-Odeh N, Al-Beyari M, Abu-Hammad O. The role of antifungal drugs in the management of denture-associated stomatitis. Int Arabic J Antimicrobial Agents 2012; 2(1):1-5. doi: 10.3823/705.

Alajmi B, Abu-Hammad O, Al-Sharrad A, Dar-Odeh N. Tobacco cessation support among dentists: A cross-sectional survey in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Tobacco Prev Cessation 2017; 3(121):1-8. doi: 10.18332/tpc/75795.

Almeida AG, Roseman MM, Sheff M, Huntington N, Hughes CV. Future caries susceptibility in children with early childhood caries following treatment under general anesthesia. Pediatr Dent 2000; 22(4):302-6.

Bowen WH, Lawrence RA. Comparison of the cariogenicity of cola, honey, cow milk, human milk, and sucrose. Pediatrics 2005; 116(4):921-6. doi: 10.1542/peds.2004-2462.

Avila WM, Pordeus IA, Paiva SM, Martins CC. Breast and bottle feeding as risk factors for dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS One 2015; 10(11):e0142922. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142922.

Dar-Odeh N, Binsaad S, Gasim R, Haidary R, Afandi A, Abu-Hammad S, Abu-Hammad O. Why do women avoid dental visits during pregnancy? A cross-sectional survey in Al Madinah, Western Saudi Arabia. Pesq Bras Odontoped Clin Integr 2018; 18(1):e3934. doi: 10.4034/PBOCI.2018.181.31.

Unesco. Institute for Statistics. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. Available at: http://uis.unesco.org/en/country/SA. [Accessed November 20, 2017].

Jawad H. The Rights of Women in Islam: An Authentic Approach. London: Macmillan, 1998.

Kloetzel MK, Huebner CE, Milgrom P. Referrals for dental care during pregnancy. J Midwifery Womens Health 2011; 56(2):110-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1542-2011.2010.00022.x.

The California Dental Association Foundation. Oral Health During Pregnancy and Early Childhood: Evidenced-based Guide for Health Professionals. Available at: http://www.cdafoundation.org/learn/perinatal_oral_health. [Accessed March 10, 2010].




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2018.181.66

PBOCI IS A MEMBER OF CROSSREF AND ALL THE CONTENT OF ITS JOURNALS ARE LINKED BY DOIS THROUGH CROSSREF.