Determinant Factors of Dental Caries in Indonesian Children Age 8-12 Years

Muhammad Harun Achmad, Sri Ramadhany, Susilowaty Mudjari, Andi Mardiana Adam


Objective: To evaluate the determinant factors of dental caries in Indonesian children aged 8-12 years. Material and Methods: This study was observational and analytical with a cross-sectional design. A total of 114 children were selected using simple random sampling technique. Primary data was obtained from a questionnaire about tooth brushing habits, the use of toothpaste containing fluoride and cariogenic eating habits and data of dental caries obtained from direct observed by a dentist. Univariat data were analyzed using descriptive and bivariate data were analyzed using Chi-square tests. Results: The results obtained by 44.8% fair category of children who have tooth-brushing habits, use of toothpaste containing fluoride was 100%, and 71% middle category children who have cariogenic eating habits. The most consumed cariogenic food was ice cream with 76.3% participants consumed it one to three times a week. The most eaten cariogenic foods every day in this sample were syroup/pop ice soft drink (42.1%). No significant association between gender and dental caries incidence was observed (p>0.05). Conclusion: There is significant association between tooth brushing habits with dental caries in Indonesian children aged 8-12 years at primary school in district of East Luwu Regency Tomoni.


Toothbrushing; Diet, Cariogenic; Dental Caries.

Full Text:



Indonesia. Ministry of Health. National Institute of Health Research and Development. Basic Health Research. Jakarta. 2014.

Indonesia. Ministry of Health. National Institute of Health Research and Development. Regulation of the Minister of Health no. 75 Year 2014 on Puskesmas. School Age Children Becoming the Foundation of National Quality. Available at: Puskesmas.pdf. [Accessed on March 14 2017].

Tarigan R. Tooth caries. 2.nd. ed. Jakarta: EGC, 2013.

Indonesia. Ministry of Health. Directorate General of Public Health. Available at: [Accessed on March 14 2017].

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of Dental Caries. Available at: [Accessed on March 14 2017].

Farooqi FA, Khabeer A, Moheet IA, Khan SQ, Farooq I, ArRejaie AS. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬. Saudi Med J 2015; 36(6):737-42. doi: 10.15537/smj.2015.6.10888.

Karmawati IA, Tauchid SN, Harahap N. Risk differences of new caries occurrence at 12-year-old students of primary school of ukgs and non-ukgs element in cilandak district of south Jakarta in 2011. J Health Quality 2012; 2(4):223-33.

Ibtiah F, Febry F. Factors associated with dental caries incidents in children 10-12 years old in elementary school 33 Palembang. Jurnal Ilmu Kesehatan Masyarakat 2011; 2(3):196-202.

Pintauli S, Hamada T. Towards healthy teeth and mouth: prevention and care. Medan: USU Press, 2008. p. 4-5.

Nurhaliza C. Dental Caries. Jakarta: EGC, 2015.

Nugroho A. Relationship patterns of cariogenic and tooth brushing habit against first permanent tooth decay in children aged 8-10 years 01 elementary school Sukoharjo. Skripsi Thesis, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, 2015.

Arisman MB. Nutrition Science Book: Nutrition in the life cycle. Jakarta: EGC, 2004.

Berg JH, Slayton RL. Early childhood oral health. NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

Achmad H, Ramadhany YF. Effectiveness of chitosan toothpaste from White Shrimp (Litopenaeusvannamel) to reduce number of streptococcus mutans in the case of early childhood caries. J Int Dent Med Res 2017; 10(2):358-63.

Achmad H, Chandha MH, Harun S, Sudjarwo I, Yunus M, Rusdi RK, Khairunnisa P. Prevalence of medically compromised children regarding dental caries and treatment needs in Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital. J Int Dent Med Res 2017; 10(3):915-20.