Self-Medication for Toothache and its Associated Factors in Children and Adolescents

Marcília Ribeiro Paulino, Marayza Alves Clementino, Hellen Bandeira de Pontes Santos, Mara Ilka Holanda de Medeiros Batista, Alessandra Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Cassiano Francisco Weege Nonaka, Simone Alves de Sousa

Abstract


Objective:To evaluate self-medication for toothache and its associated factors in children and adolescents. Material and Methods:A cross-sectional study was carried out with 252 children/adolescents aged 6-16 years. A questionnaire was applied with questions related to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; experience of, and self-medication for, toothache; as well as aspects related to the condition. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses (Pearson’s Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test) were performed, with a 5% significance level. Results:The prevalence of toothache was 41.7%. In 96 cases analyzed, there was prevalence of 69.8% of self-medication for toothache. There were no statistically significant associations between self-medication for toothache and variables related to the children/adolescents (gender and age), their parents or guardians (age and schooling), socioeconomic characteristics (family income and number of people in the household) and aspects related to toothache (fever, crying and school absenteeism) (p>0.05). The most commonly used drug was paracetamol (60.7%), whose choice was based to its previous use by the study population for conditions not related to toothache (47.8%). Conclusion:There was a high prevalence of self-medication for toothache in the study population. No independent variable was associated with self-medication practice.


Keywords


Therapeutics; Self Medication; Prescriptions; Absenteeism.

Full Text:

PDF

References


World Health Organization. Guidelines for the regulatory assessment of medicinal products for use in self-medication. WHO/EDM/QSM/002000. Available at: https://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/s2218e/s2218e.pdf. [Accessed on June, 28, 2018]

Gendel MH, Brooks E, Early SR, Gundersen DC, Dubovsky SL, Dilts SL, et al. Self-prescribed and other informal care provided by physicians: scope, correlations and implications. J Med Ethics 2012; 38(5):294-8. https://doi.org/10.1136/medethics-2011-100167

Shehnaz SI, Agarwal AK, Khan N. A systematic review of self-medication practices among adolescents. J Adolesc Health 2014; 55(4):467-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.07.001

Chiribagula VB, Mboni HM, Amuri SB, Kamulete GS, Byanga JK, Duez P, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of self-medication among students 18 to 35 years residing in Campus Kasapa of Lubumbashi University. Pan Afr Med J 2015; 21:107. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2015.21.107.5651

Bertoldi AD, Silveira MP, Menezes AM, Assunção MC, Gonçalves H, Hallal PC. Tracking of medicine use and self-medication from infancy to adolescence: 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. J Adolesc Health 2012; 51(6):S11-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.027

Conhi A, Castillo-Andamayo DE, Castillo-López C. Automedicación odontológica de pacientes que acuden a una institución pública y privada, Lima, Perú. Rev Estomatol Herediana 2015; 25(3):205-10. https://doi.org/10.20453/reh.v25i3.2623 [In Spanish]

Domingues PHF, Galvão TF, Andrade KRC, Sá PTT, Silva MT, Pereira MG. Prevalence of self-medication in the adult population of Brazil: A systematic review. Rev Saúde Pública 2015; 49:36. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-8910.2015049005709

Garofalo L, Di Giuseppe G, Angelillo IF. Self-medication practices among parents in Italy. Biomed Res Int 2015; 2015:580650. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/580650

Helal RM, Abou-ElWafa HS. Self-medication in university students from the city of Mansoura, Egypt. J Environ Public Health 2017; 2017:9145193. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/9145193

Matos JF, Pena DAC, Parreira MP, Santos TC, Coura-Vital W. Prevalence, profile and factors associated with self-medication in adolescents and employees of a professionalizing public school. Cad Saúde Colet 2018; 26(1):76-83. https://doi.org/10.1590/1414-462x201800010351

Santos ANM, Nogueira DRC, Borja-Oliveira CR. Self-medication among participants of an open university of the third age and associated factors. Rev Bras Geriatr Gerontol 2018; 21(4):419-27. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-22562018021.170204

Lima BR, Ferreira MBC, Casagrande L. Self-medication in children and young patients at university dental service. Pesqui Bras Odontopediatria Clin Integr 2016; 16(1):229-34. https://doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2016.161.24

Silva PS, Rangel BCC, Castilho SR. Avaliação da propaganda de medicamentos isentos de prescrição em farmácias comunitárias do município de Niterói (RJ, Brasil). R Dir Sanit 2018; 18(3):77-93. https://doi.org/10.11606/issn.2316-9044.v18i3p77-93 [In Portuguese]

Domingues PHF, Galvão TF, Andrade KRC, Araújo PC, Silva MT, Pereira MG. Prevalence and associated factors of self-medication in adults living in the Federal District, Brazil: A cross-sectional, population-based study. Epidemiol Serv Saúde 2017; 26(2):319-30.

https://doi.org/10.5123/s1679-49742017000200009

Baig QA, Muzaffar D, Afaq A, Bilal S, Iqbal N. Prevalence of self-medication among dental patients. Pak Oral Dent J 2012; 32(2):292-5.

Simon AK, Rao A, Rajesh G, Shenoy R, Pai MB. Trends in self-medication for dental conditions among patients attending oral health outreach programs in coastal Karnataka, India. Indian J Pharmacol 2015; 47(5):524-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0253-7613.165195

Baptist J, Sharma SM, Hegde N. Self-medication practices for managing tooth pain amongst patients attending oral surgery clinics. Oral Surg 2012; 5(4):163-7.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-248X.2012.01168.x

Plutzer K, Spencer AJ, Keirse MJ. How first-time mothers perceive and deal with teething symptoms: a randomized controlled trial. Child Care Health Dev 2012; 38(2):292-9.

https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2214.2011.01215.x

Anyanechi C, Saheeb B. Toothache and self-medication practices: a study of patients attending a Niger delta tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Ann Med Health Sci Res 2014; 4(6):884-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/2141-9248.144896

Thikkurissy S, Allen PH, Smiley MK, Casamassimo PS. Waiting for the pain to get worse: Characteristics of a pediatric population with acute dental pain. Pediatr Dent 2012; 34(4):289-94.

Nogueira JSE, Bonini GAVC, Mascaro MSB, Imparato JCP, Politano GT. Children's self-medication attended at an Amazon Dental Specialist Center. Rev Assoc Paul Cir Dent 2015; 69(4):369-75.

Jaiswal AK, Pachava S, Sanikommu S, Rawlani SS, Pydi S, Ghanta B. Dental pain and self-care: A cross-sectional study of people with low socio-economic status residing in rural India. Int Dent J 2015; 65(5):256-60. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12180

Dean AG, Sullivan KM, Soe MM. OpenEpi: Open Source Epidemiologic Statistics for Public Health. Version 2.3.1. Available at: https://www.OpenEpi.com. [Accessed on June 11, 2011]

Arrais PSD, Fernandes MEP, Pizzol TSD, Ramos LR, Menguel SS, Luiza VL, et al. Prevalência da automedicação no Brasil e fatores associados. Rev Saúde Pública 2016; 50(Supl 2):13s. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1518-8787.2016050006117 [In Portuguese]

Brlić KČ, Janev Holcer N, Sović S, Štimac D. Characteristics of self-medication for pain relief among first-year health care students in Zagreb, Croatia. Psychiatr Danub 2014; 26(3):459-65.

Martins AP, Miranda Ada C, Mendes Z, Soares MA, Ferreira P, Nogueira A. Self-medication in a Portuguese urban population: A prevalence study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2002; 11(5):409-14. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.711

Aljinović-Vučić V, Trkulja V, Lacković Z. Content of home pharmacies and self-medication practices in households of pharmacy and medical students in Zagreb, Croatia: Findings in 2001 with a reference to 1977. Croat Med J 2005; 46(1):74-80.

Jain A, Bhaskar DJ, Gupta D, Agali C, Yadav P, Khurana R. Practice of self-medication for dental problems in Uttar Pradesh, India. Oral Health Prev Dent 2016; 14(1):5-11. https://doi.org/10.3290/j.ohpd.a35000

Hommez G, Ongena B, Cauwels RGEC, De Paepe P, Christiaens V, Jacquet W. Analgesia (mis)usage on a dental emergency service: A patient survey. Clin Oral Investig 2018; 22(3):1297-1302. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2228-6

Dresch AP, Amador TA, Heineck I. Patients’ knowledge regarding medication prescribed by dentists in southern Brazil. Ciênc Saúde Coletiva 2016; 21(2):475-83.

https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015212.17732014




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4034/PBOCI.2019.191.36

PBOCI IS A MEMBER OF CROSSREF AND ALL THE CONTENT OF ITS JOURNALS ARE LINKED BY DOIS THROUGH CROSSREF.