Early Detection of Bacillus anthracis From Saliva in Anticipation of a Bioterrorism Attack

Tigor Rona Airlangga Harya Bima, Rahmat Setya Adji, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

Abstract


Objective:To assess potential for early detection of oral infection by B. anthracisspores for preparedness of a bioterrorism attack. Material and Methods:The laboratory study used saliva with a range of initial anthrax concentrations, to compare detection by direct observation from conventional blood agar culture and by anthrax-specific PCR after a shorter culture in BHI broth. Three types of saliva were collected: stimulated saliva, unstimulated/whole saliva, and unstimulated/whole saliva with antibiotic treatment (for negative control). Using bivariate Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for statistical analysis for factors that could affecting anthrax detection, significant differences between the test groups was assumed at p<0.05. Results:From unstimulated whole saliva heat shock treated at 62.50C, B. anthracisgrowth was detected with both methods. PCR detection from a BHI broth culture could shorten the time to diagnosis in comparison to conventional culture in blood agar. Conclusion:Saliva can provide useful samples for diagnosis of oropharyngeal anthrax. In comparison to conventional culture on blood agar, shorter-term culture in BHI broth provides potential for earlier detection and diagnosis.


Keywords


Bioterrorism; Biological Warfare; Anthrax; Saliva

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References


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