Positive Correlation Between the Level of Interferon-Gamma and the Severity of Periodontitis

Chaerita Maulani, Sri Lelyati Chaidar Masulili, Sonya Priyadharsini, Tri Panjiasih Susmiarsih, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

Abstract


Objective:To examine the IFN- γlevels in patients with periodontitis and determine the difference in the levels of IFN-γwith the severity of the disease. Material and Methods:The study design was cross-sectional, and the sample consisted of 31 patients, aged between 18 and 64 years. Plaque index (PlI), calculus index (CI), and papillary bleeding index (PBI) were measured. Pocket depth (PD), recession, and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (mm) were measured at six sites per teeth. For mild/moderate periodontitis, pocket depth ≥4 mm in 1–3 sites was required, while the essential criteria for severe periodontitis were pocket depth ≥5 mm, clinical attachment loss >3 mm in more than 3 sites ≥2 quadrants. The IFN-γlevels were measured by performing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples. The measurements were made in two different sites, and the severity of periodontitis was categorized based on the pocket depth, attachment loss, and the remaining natural teeth. Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, and Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient were. Results:The levels of IFN-γ(pg/mL) were correlated with the severity of the periodontal status, with p <0.05. Clinical parameters of periodontitis also correlated with the level of IFN-γ(pg/mL). Conclusion:Subjects with periodontitis presented greater levels of IFN-γ(pg/mL) in GCF than the periodontal healthy individuals. This result showed the role of IFN-γin the inflammation.

Keywords


Periodontitis; Gingival Crevicular Fluid; Interferon-gamma.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Notohartojo IT, Sihombing M. Risk factors on dental periodontal tissues disease in Indonesia (Riskesdas 2013). Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan 2015; 18:87-94. https://doi.org/10.22435/hsr.v18i1.4274.87-94

Gomes FI, Aragão MG, Barbosa FC, Bezerra MM, de Paulo Teixeira Pinto V, Chaves HV. Inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and tumour necrosis factor-α - novel biomarkers for the detection of periodontal diseases: A literature review. J Oral Maxillofac Res 2016; 7(2):e2. https://doi.org/10.5037/jomr.2016.7202

Caton JG, Armitage G, Berglundh T, Chapple ILC, Jepsen S, Kornman KS, et al. A new classification scheme for periodontal and peri-implant diseases and conditions - Introduction and key changes from the 1999 classification. J Clin Periodontol 2018; 45(Suppl 20):S1-S8. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12935

Gonzales JR. T- and B-cell subsets in periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 2015; 69(1):181-200. https://doi.org/10.1111/prd.12090

Labzin LI, Lauterbach MA, Latz E. Interferons and inflammasomes: Cooperation and counterregulation in disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2016; 138(1):37-46. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2016.05.010

Billiau A, Matthys P. Interferon-gamma: A historical perspective. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2009; 20(2):97-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cytogfr.2009.02.004

Fiorillo L, Cervino G, Herford A, Lauritano F, D’Amico C, Lo Giudice R. Interferon crevicular fluid profile and correlation with periodontal disease and wound healing: A systemic review of recent data. Int J Mol Sci 2018; 19(7):E1908. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19071908

Cekici A, Kantarci A, Hasturk H, Van Dyke TE. Inflammatory and immune pathways in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000 2014; 64(1):57-80. https://doi.org/10.1111/prd.12002

Garlet GP. Destructive and protective roles of cytokines in periodontitis: A re-appraisal from host defense and tissue destruction viewpoints. J Dent Res 2010; 89(12):1349-63. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034510376402

Andrukhov O, Ulm C, Reischl H, Nguyen P, Matejka M, Rausch-Fan X. Serum cytokine levels in periodontitis patients in relation to the bacterial load. J Periodontol 2011; 82(6):885-92. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2010.100425

Barros SP, Williams R, Offenbacher S, Morelli T. Gingival crevicular fluid as a source of biomarkers for periodontitis. Periodontol 2000 2016; 70(1):53-64. https://doi.org/10.1111/prd.12107

Rosa N, Correia MJ, Arrais JP, Costa N, Oliveira JL, Barros M. The landscape of protein biomarkers proposed for periodontal disease: Markers with functional meaning. Biomed Res Int 2014; 2014:569632. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/569632

Queiroz AC, Taba Jr M, O ́Connell PA, Nóbrega PB, Costa PP, Kawata VK, et al. Inflammation markers in healthy and periodontitis patients: A preliminary data screening. Braz Dent J 2008; 19(1):3-8.

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-64402008000100001

Fu Q-Y, Zhang L, Duan L, Qian S-Y, Pang H-X. Correlation of chronic periodontitis in tropical area and IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-17 levels. Asian Pac J Trop Med 2013; 6(6):489-92. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1995-7645(13)60080-2

Duarte PM, da Rocha M, Sampaio E, Mestnik MJ, Feres M, Figueiredo LC, Bastos MF, et al. Serum levels of cytokines in subjects with generalized chronic and aggressive periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy: A pilot study. J Periodontol 2010; 81(7):1056-63. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2010.090732

Loo WT, Fan CB, Bai LJ, Yue Y, Dou YD, Wang M, et al. Gene polymorphism and protein of human pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in Chinese healthy subjects and chronic periodontitis patients. J Transl Med 2012; 10(Suppl 1):S8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-10-s1-s8

Dutzan N, Vernal R, Hernandez M, Dezerega A, Rivera O, Silva N, et al. Levels of interferon-gamma and transcription factor T-bet in progressive periodontal lesions in patients with chronic periodontitis. J Periodontol 2009; 80(2):290-6. https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2009.080287

Tomás I, Arias-Bujanda N, Alonso-Sampedro M, Casares-de-Cal MA, Sánchez-Sellero C, Suárez-Quintanilla D, et al. Cytokine-based predictive models to estimate the probability of chronic periodontitis: Development of diagnostic nomograms. Sci Rep 2017; 7(1):11580. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-06674-2

Tsai CC, Ku CH, Ho YP, Ho KY, Wu YM, Hung CC. Changes in gingival crevicular fluid interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma in patients with chronic periodontitis before and after periodontal initial therapy. Kaohsiung J Med Sci 2007; 23(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1607-551x(09)70367-5

Silness P, Löe H. Periodontal disease in pregnancy II. Acta Odontol Scand 1964; 22:121-6.

Bjorby A, Loe H. The relative significance different local factors in the initiation and development of periodontal inflammation. J Periodontal Res 1967, 2:76-7.

Saxer UP, Mühlemann HR. Motivation and education. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnheilkd 1975; 85(9):905-19.

Zhu J, Jankovic D, Oler AJ, Wei G, Sharma S, Hu G, et al. The transcription factor T-bet is induced by multiple pathways and prevents an endogenous Th2 cell program during Th1 cell responses. Immunity 2012; 37(4):660-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2012.09.007

Shaddox LM, Goncalves PF, Vovk A, Allin N, Huang H, Hou W, et al. LPS-induced inflammatory response after therapy of aggressive periodontitis. J Dent Res2013; 92(8):702-8. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034513495242

Gonzales JR, Groger S, Boedeker RH, Meyle J. Expression and secretion levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in patients with aggressive periodontitis. Clin Oral Investig 2012; 16(5):1463-73.

https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-011-0634-8

Honda T, Domon H, Okui T, Kajita K, Amanuma R, Yamazaki K. Balance of inflammatory response in stable gingivitis and progressive periodontitis lesions. Clin Exp Immunol 2006; 144(1):35-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2249.2006.03028.x

Arjunkumar R SU, Jayakumar P, Arunachalam L, Suresh S, Virupapuram P. Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid neopterin levels in health and periodontal disease: A biochemical study. Indian J Dent Res 2013; 24(5):582-6. https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.123376

Maliji G, Jafari S, Azadmehr A, Moosavi SE, Taheri E, Maliji E. Effect of smoking on IFN-γ and IL-10 cytokines level in gingival crevicular fluid and clinical parameters of periodontium in Babol city. Res Mol Med 2013; 1(2):27-32. https://doi.org/10.18869/acadpub.rmm.1.2.27




PBOCI IS A MEMBER OF CROSSREF AND ALL THE CONTENT OF ITS JOURNALS ARE LINKED BY DOIS THROUGH CROSSREF.