Psychological Factors in Temporomandibular Disorders Patients during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study
Keywords:Coronavirus, Anxiety, Temporomandibular Joint Disorders, Psychological Distress
AbstractObjective: To assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on levels of anxiety, stress, and orofacial pain in individuals with and without TMD. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were divided into two groups (n=10, each) experimental group (EG) TMD patients and control group (CG), without TMD. The presence of TMD was confirmed using the RDC/TMD. The Beck Anxiety Scale (BAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Oral Analog Scale were used for assessment. The Beck Anxiety Scale is composed of 21 multiple-choice questions describing symptoms of anxiety, while the PSS is a measure that evaluates life situations as stressful. An Oral Analogue Scale was applied to each individual to quantify orofacial pain, with 0 (zero) without pain and 10 (ten) being the worst pain ever felt. The comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression was used to verify TMD dependence in relation to BAI and PSS-10. Quantitative variables were correlated with each other by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The level of significance considered for all tests was 5%. Results: The association was statistically significant (p≤0.05) for BAI and PSS with a TMD. Conclusion: Although the COVID 19 pandemic has had a psychological impact on the general population, patients with TMD have higher levels of anxiety and stress than the control group.
Kisely S, Warren N, McMahon L, Dalais C, Henry I, Siskind D. Occurrence, prevention, and management of the psychological effects of emerging virus outbreaks on healthcare workers: rapid review and meta-analysis. BMJ 2020; 369:1642. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m1642
World Health Organization. WHO Announces COVID-19 Outbreak a Pandemic. Copenhagen: WHO; 2020. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/coronavirus-covid19/news/news/2020/3/who-announces-covid-19-outbreak-a-pandemic. [Accessed on January 27, 2020].
Bulut C, Kato Y. Epidemiology of COVID-19. Turk J Med Sci 2020; 50(SI-1):563-70. https://doi.org/10.3906/sag-2004-172
Lippi G, Sanchis-Gomar F, Henry BM. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): the portrait of a perfect storm. Ann Transl Med 2020; 8(7):497. https://doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.157
Brooks SK, Webster RK, Smith LE, Woodland L, Wessely S, Greenberg N, et al. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 2020; 395(10227):912-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
Alkhudhairy MW, Al Ramel F, Al Jader G, Al Saegh L, Al Hadad A, Alalwan T, et al. A self-reported association between temporomandibular joint disorders, headaches, and stress. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2018; 8(4):371-80. https://doi.org/10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_177_18
Waked J P, Canuto MPLAM, Gueiros MCSN, Aroucha JM, Farias CG, Caldas AF. Model for predicting temporomandibular dysfunction: use of classification tree analysis. Braz Dent J 2020; 31(4):360-7. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440202003279
Maślak-Bereś M, Loster JE, Wieczorek A, Loster BW. Evaluation of the psychoemotional status of young adults with symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Brain Behav 2019; 9(11):e01443. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1443
Jasim H, Louca S, Christidis N, Ernberg M. Salivary cortisol and psychological factors in women with chronic and acute oro-facial pain. J Oral Rehabil 2014; 41(2):122-32. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12118
Gauer RL, Semidey MJ. Diagnosis and treatment of temporomandibular disorders. Am Fam Physician 2015; 91(6):378-86.
Pereira Júnior FJ, Favilla EE, Dworkin S, Huggins K. Research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (RDC/TMD): formal translation to portuguese. J Bras Clin Odontol Integr 2004; 8(47):384-95.
Schiffman E, Ohrbach R, Truelove E, Look J, Anderson G, Goulet JP et al. International RDC/TMD Consortium Network, International association for Dental Research; Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group, International Association for the Study of Pain. Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group†. J Oral Facial Pain Headache 2014; 28(1):6-27. https://doi.org/10.11607/jop.1151
Cunha JA. Manual da Versão em Português das Escalas Beck. São Paulo: Casa do Psicólogo. 2001. [In Portuguese].
Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A global measure of perceived stress. J Health Soc Behav 1983; 24(4):385-96.
Reis RS, Hino AA, Añez CR. Perceived stress scale: reliability and validity study in Brazil. J Health Psychol 2010; 15(1):107-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309346343
Banerjee D, Rai M. Social isolation in Covid-19: The impact of loneliness. Int J Soc Psychiatry 2020; 66(6):525-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020922269
Oliveira SSI, Gonçalves SLM, Weig KM, Magalhães Filho TR, Martinez Oer, Kalil MTAC, et al. Temporomandibular disorders: guidelines and self-care for patients during COVID-19 pandemic. Braz Dent Sci 2020; 23(2, supl):1-8. https://doi.org/10.14295/bds.2020.v23i2.2255
Qu X, Zhou XD. Psychological intervention for patients with oral disease during the pandemic period of COVID-19. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi 2020; 55(4):235-40. https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112144-20200213-00053
De Leeuw R, Klasser GD. American Academy of Orofacial Pain: Orofacial Pain: Guidelines for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Management. 5th ed. Chicago: Quintessence Publishing; 2013.
Slade GD, Ohrbach R, Greenspan JD, Fillingim RB, Bair E, Sanders AE, et al. Painful temporomandibular disorder: decade of discovery from OPPERA studies. J Dent Res 2016; 95(10):1084-92. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034516653743
Ferreira CL, Silva MA, Felício CM. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in women and men. Codas 2016; 28(1):17-21. https://doi.org/10.1590/2317-1782/20162014218
Manfredini D, Bandettini di Poggio A, Cantini E, DellÓsso L, Bosco M. Mood and anxiety psychopathology and temporomandibular disorder: a spectrum approach. J Oral Rehabil 2004; 31(10):933-40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2004.01335
Pallegama RW, Ranasinghe AW, Weerasinghe VS, Sitheeque MAM. Anxiety and personality traits in patients with muscle related temporomandibular disorders. J Oral Rehabil 2005; 32:701-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01503.x
Augusto VG, Perina KCB, Penha DSG, Dos Santos DCA, Oliveira VAS. Temporomandibular dysfunction, stress and common mental disorder in University students. Acta Ortoped Bras 2016; 24(6):330-3. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-785220162406162873
Wang C, Tee M, Roy AE, Fardin MA, Srichokchatchawan W, Habib HA, et al. The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on physical and mental health of Asians: a study of seven middle-income countries in Asia. PLoS One 2021; 16(2):e0246824. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246824
Casagrande M, Favieri F, Tambelli R, Forte G. The enemy who sealed the world: effects quarantine due to the COVID-19 on sleep quality, anxiety, and psychological distress in the Italian population. Sleep Med 2020; 75:12-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sleep.2020.05.011
Xiao H, Zhang Y, Kong D, Li S, Yang N. The Effects of Social Support on Sleep Quality of Medical Staff Treating Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Med Sci Monit 2020; 26:e923549. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.923549
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.