Smile Arc Esthetics in Middle-Aged Man from the Layperson’s Perspective Via Eye-Tracking


  • Orlando Motohiro Tanaka
  • Vitor Gouveia Ribeiro
  • Gil Guilherme Gasparello
  • Ariel Adriano Reyes
  • Itamar Antonio Taffarel
  • Robert Willer Farinazzo Vitral


Esthetics, Eye-Tracking Technology, Perception, Smiling


Objective: To evaluate the perceptions of smile esthetics associated with variations in the vertical plane of the maxillary incisors in the smile arc using eye-tracking software. Material and Methods: An image of a 59-year-old Caucasian male model was adapted and edited to make three changes in the vertical plane, simulating a convex, straight, and reverse smile arc. Four areas of interest were inserted at the right and left eyes, nose, and mouth. Forty laypeople raters between 18 and 45 years of age participated of the study. Eye-tribe hardware and Ogama software were used to perform eye-tracking. Attractiveness and age-perception questions were also incorporated into the study. ANOVA test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at p < 0.05. Results: The most observed AOI in images with convex, straight, and reverse smiles, as assessed using heatmaps and point maps, was the mouth, followed by the right eye. A significant difference for the eye (p=0.02) was found when comparing convex and reverse smiles, whereas a significant difference for the mouth was observed between the straight and reverse smiles (p=0.03). Conclusion: Convex and straight smile arcs were associated with equal levels of attractiveness; the reverse smile was less attractive. No significant difference was noticed regarding age perception and the smile arcs. However, the reverse smile recorded a more complete fixation time.


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How to Cite

Tanaka, O. M. ., Ribeiro, V. G. ., Gasparello, G. G. ., Reyes, A. A. ., Taffarel, I. A. ., & Vitral, R. W. F. . (2022). Smile Arc Esthetics in Middle-Aged Man from the Layperson’s Perspective Via Eye-Tracking. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 22, e210138. Retrieved from



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