Smile Arc Esthetics in Middle-Aged Man from the Layperson’s Perspective Via Eye-Tracking
Keywords:Esthetics, Eye-Tracking Technology, Perception, Smiling
AbstractObjective: To evaluate the perceptions of smile esthetics associated with variations in the vertical plane of the maxillary incisors in the smile arc using eye-tracking software. Material and Methods: An image of a 59-year-old Caucasian male model was adapted and edited to make three changes in the vertical plane, simulating a convex, straight, and reverse smile arc. Four areas of interest were inserted at the right and left eyes, nose, and mouth. Forty laypeople raters between 18 and 45 years of age participated of the study. Eye-tribe hardware and Ogama software were used to perform eye-tracking. Attractiveness and age-perception questions were also incorporated into the study. ANOVA test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at p < 0.05. Results: The most observed AOI in images with convex, straight, and reverse smiles, as assessed using heatmaps and point maps, was the mouth, followed by the right eye. A significant difference for the eye (p=0.02) was found when comparing convex and reverse smiles, whereas a significant difference for the mouth was observed between the straight and reverse smiles (p=0.03). Conclusion: Convex and straight smile arcs were associated with equal levels of attractiveness; the reverse smile was less attractive. No significant difference was noticed regarding age perception and the smile arcs. However, the reverse smile recorded a more complete fixation time.
Drummond S, Capelli Jr J. Incisor display during speech and smile: Age and gender correlations. Angle Orthod 2016; 86(4):631-7. https://doi.org/10.2319/042515-284.1
Havens DC, McNamara Jr JA, Sigler LM, Baccetti T. The role of the posed smile in overall facial esthetics. Angle Orthod 2010; 80(2):322-8. https://doi.org/10.2319/040409-194.1
Sarver DM. The importance of incisor positioning in the esthetic smile: the smile arc. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2001; 120(2):98-111. https://doi.org/10.1067/mod.2001.114301
Machado AW. 10 commandments of smile esthetics. Dental Press J Orthod 2014; 19(4):136-57. https://doi.org/10.1590/2176-94188.8.131.52-157.sar
Sarver DM, Ackerman MB. Dynamic smile visualization and quantification: Part 2. Smile analysis and treatment strategies. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2003; 124(2):116-27. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0889-540600307-x
de Oliveira WL, Saga AY, Ignácio SA, Justino EJR, Tanaka OM. Comparative study between different groups of esthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need and eye tracking. Am J Orthod Dentofac Orthop 2019; 156(1):67-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2018.07.026
Demir R, Baysal A. Three-dimensional evaluation of smile characteristics in subjects with increased vertical facial dimensions. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2020; 157(6):773-82. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.06.016
Desai S, Upadhyay M, Nanda R. Dynamic smile analysis: changes with age. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2009; 136(3):310. e1-. e10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.01.021
Massaro C, Miranda F, Janson G, Rodrigues de Almeida R, Pinzan A, Martins DR, et al. Maturational changes of the normal occlusion: A 40-year follow-up. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2018; 154(2):188-200. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.10.028
Hamdan AM, Lewis SM, Kelleher KE, Elhady SN, Lindauer SJ. Does overbite reduction affect smile esthetics? Angle Orthod 2019; 89(6):847-54. https://doi.org/10.2319/030819-177.1
Pithon MM, Alves LP, da Costa Prado M, Oliveira RL, Costa MS, da Silva Coqueiro R, et al. Perception of Esthetic Impact of Smile Line in Complete Denture Wearers by Different Age Groups. J Prosthodont 2016; 25(7):531-5. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12355
Peck S, Peck L, Kataja M. The gingival smile line. Angle Orthod 1992; 62(2):91-100.
Fudalej P. Long-term changes of the upper lip position relative to the incisal edge. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2008; 133(2):204-9; quiz 328 e1. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.04.040
Parekh S, Fields H, Beck F, Rosenstiel S. The acceptability of variations in smile arc and buccal corridor space. Orthod Craniofac Res 2007; 10(1):15-21. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-6343.2007.00378.x
Springer NC, Chang C, Fields HW, Beck FM, Firestone AR, Rosenstiel S, et al. Smile esthetics from the layperson’s perspective. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2011; 139(1):e91-e101. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2010.06.019
Gobel SM. Up or down? Reading direction influences vertical counting direction in the horizontal plane - a cross-cultural comparison. Front Psychol 2015; 6:228. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00228
Kokich Jr VO, Asuman Kiyak H, Shapiro PA. Comparing the perception of dentists and lay people to altered dental esthetics. J Esthet Dent 1999; 11(6):311-24. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8240.1999.tb00414.x
Machado AW, McComb RW, Moon W, Gandini LG, Jr. Influence of the vertical position of maxillary central incisors on the perception of smile esthetics among orthodontists and laypersons. J Esthet Restor Dent 2013; 25(6):392-401. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12054
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.