Effect of Light-Curing Unit Type and Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Photoinitiators on Marginal Gaps of Class II Restorations


  • Fereshteh Naser Alavi
  • Farideh Darabi
  • Ashkan Salari
  • Arefeh Dehghan


Composite Resins, Curing Lights, Dental, Dental Marginal Adaptation


Objective: To evaluate the effect of two types of light-curing units (second and third generations) and two types of bulk-fill composite resins with different photoinitiators - Tetric N-Ceram Bulk Fill (TNCB) and X-tra Fil (XTF) on gap formation at the gingival margins of Cl II restorations. Material and Methods: Fifty-six standard Cl II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of premolar teeth, with the gingival margin of the cavities 1 mm apical to the CEJ. The samples were randomly assigned to two groups based on the composite resin type and two subgroups based on the light-curing unit type and restored. After 5000 rounds of thermocycling, gingival margin gap in each sample was measured in µm under an electron microscope at ×2000 magnification. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (α=0.05). Results: Marginal gaps of TNCB composite resin were significantly smaller than those of XTF composite resin (p<0.001). There were no significant differences between the two light-curing units in each group (p=0.887 with XTF and p=0.999 with TNCB). Conclusion: The gaps at gingival margins of Cl II cavities with TNCB bulk-fill composite were smaller than XTF composite resin. Both composite resins can be cured with both the second- and third-generation LEDs.


Alrahlah A, Silikas N, Watts DC. Post-cure depth of cure of bulk fill dental resin-composites. Dent Mater 2014; 30(2):149-54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2013.10.011

Behery H, El-Mowafy O, El-Badrawy W, Saleh B, Nabih S. Cuspal deflection of premolars restored with bulk-fill composite resins. J Esthet Restor Dent 2016; 28(2):122-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12188

Ferracane JL. Resin composite - state of the art. Dent Mater 2011; 27(1):29-38. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.020

Darabi F, Tayefeh-Davalloo R, Tavangar SM, Naser-Alavi F, Boorboo-Shirazi M. The effect of composite resin preheating on marginal adaptation of class II restorations. J Clin Exp Dent 2020; 12(7):682-7. https://doi.org/10.4317/jced.56625

Arikawa H, Shinohara N, Takahashi H, Kanie T, Fujii K, Ban S. Light transmittance characteristics and refractive indices of light-activated pit and fissure sealants. Dent Mater 2010; 29(1):89-96. https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2009-042

Moszner N, Fischer UK, Ganster B, Liska R, Rheinberger V. Benzoyl germanium derivatives as novel visible light photoinitiators for dental materials. Dent Mater 2008; 24(7):901-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2007.11.004

Leprince JG, Palin WM, Vanacker J, Sabbagh J, Devaux J, Leloup G. Physico-mechanical characteristics of commercially available bulk-fill composites. J Dent 2014; 42(8):993-1000. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2014.05.009

Rueggeberg FA, Blalock JS, Callan RS. LED curing lights--what's new? Compend Contin Educ Dent 2005; 26(8):586,588,590-1.

Rueggeberg FA. State-of-the-art: dental photocuring - a review. Dent Mater 2011; 27(1):39-52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2010.10.021

Price RB, Felix CA. Effect of delivering light in specific narrow bandwidths from 394 to 515nm on the micro-hardness of resin composites. Dent Mater 2009; 25(7):899-908. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2009.01.098

Moreira Fdo C, Antoniosi Filho NR, Souza JB, Lopes LG. Sorption, solubility and residual monomers of a dental adhesive cured by different light-curing units. Braz Dent J 2010; 21(5):432-8. https://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402010000500010

Sahadi BO, Price RB, André CB, Sebold M, Bermejo GN, Palma-Dibb RG, et al. Multiple-peak and single-peak dental curing lights comparison on the wear resistance of bulk-fill composites. Braz Oral Res 2018; 32:e122. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2018.vol32.0122

Ilie N, Bucuta S, Draenert M. Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance. Oper Dent 2013; 38(6):618-25. https://doi.org/10.2341/12-395-L

Taylor MJ, Lynch E. Microleakage. J Dent 1992; 20(1):3-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/0300-5712(92)90002-t

Choudhary S, Suprabha B. Effectiveness of light emitting diode and halogen light curing units for curing microhybrid and nanocomposites. J Conserv Dent 2013; 16(3):233-7. https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.111322

Mohammadi N, Alavi FN, Rikhtehgaran S, Chaharom MEE, Salari A, Kimyai S, et al. Effect of bleaching method and curing time on the surface microhardness of microhybrid composite resin. Maedica 2020; 15(3):359-64. https://doi.org/10.26574/maedica.2020.15.3.359

Peutzfeldt A, Mühlebach S, Lussi A, Flury S. Marginal gap formation in approximal "bulk fill" resin composite restorations after artificial ageing. Oper Dent 2018; 43(2):180-9. https://doi.org/10.2341/17-068-L

Carreira M, Antunes PV, Ramalho A, Paula A, Carrilho E. Thermocycling effect on mechanical and tribological characterization of two indirect dental restorative materials. J Braz Soc Mech Sci Eng 2017; 39(1):1–17. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40430-016-0579-6

Jang JH, Park SH, Hwang IN. Polymerization shrinkage and depth of cure of bulk-fill resin composites and highly filled flowable resin. Oper Dent 2015; 40(2):172-80. https://doi.org/10.2341/13-307-L

Jung JH, Park SH. Comparison of polymerization shrinkage, physical properties, and marginal adaptation of flowable and restorative bulk fill resin-based composites. Oper Dent 2017; 42(4):375-86. https://doi.org/10.2341/16-254-L

Krämer N, Lohbauer U, García-Godoy F, Frankenberger R. Light curing of resin-based composites in the LED era. Am J Dent 2008; 21(3):135-42.

Davidson CL, Feilzer AJ. Polymerization shrinkage and polymerization shrinkage stress in polymer-based restoratives. J Dent 1997; 25(6):435-40. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0300-5712(96)00063-2

Braga RR, Ballester RY, Ferracane JL. Factors involved in the development of polymerization shrinkage stress in resin-composites: a systematic review. Dent Mater 2005; 21(10):962-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2005.04.018

Ilie N, Rencz A, Hickel R. Investigations towards nano-hybrid resin-based composites. Clin Oral Investig 2013; 17(1):185-93. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-012-0689-1

Van Ende A, De Munck J, Van Landuyt K, Van Meerbeek B. Effect of bulk-filling on the bonding efficacy in occlusal class i cavities. J Adhes Dent 2016; 18(2):119-24. https://doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a35905

Hoseinifar R, Mofidi M, Malekhosseini N. The effect of occlusal loading on gingival microleakage of bulk fill composites compared with a conventional composite. J Dent 2020; 21(2):87-94. https://doi.org/10.30476/DENTJODS.2019.77861.0

Menees TS, Lin CP, Kojic DD, Burgess JO, Lawson NC. Depth of cure of bulk fill composites with monowave and polywave curing lights. Am J Dent 2015; 28(6):357-61.

Albuquerque PP, Bertolo ML, Cavalcante LM, Pfeifer C, Schneider LF. Degree of conversion, depth of cure, and color stability of experimental dental composite formulated with camphorquinone and phenanthrenequinone photoinitiators. J Esthet Restor Dent 2015; 27(Suppl 1):S49-57. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12131

Price RB, Fahey J, Felix CM. Knoop hardness of five composites cured with single-peak and polywave LED curing lights. Quintessence Int 2010; 41(10):e181-91.

Lee SK, Kim TW, Son SA, Park JK, Kim JH, Kim HI, et al. Influence of light-curing units on the polymerization of low-shrinkage composite resins. Dent Mater J 2013; 32(5):688-94. https://doi.org/10.4012/dmj.2013-027




How to Cite

Alavi, F. N. ., Darabi, F. ., Salari, A. ., & Dehghan, A. . (2022). Effect of Light-Curing Unit Type and Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Photoinitiators on Marginal Gaps of Class II Restorations. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 22, e210110. Retrieved from https://revista.uepb.edu.br/PBOCI/article/view/1343



Original Articles