3D Bitemark Analysis in Forensic Odontology Utilizing a Smartphone Camera and Open-Source Monoscopic Photogrammetry Surface Scanning


  • Arofi Kurniawan
  • An’nisaa Chusida
  • Haryono Utomo
  • Maria Istiqomah Marini
  • Beta Novia Rizky
  • Beshlina Fitri Widayati Prakoeswa
  • Janice Hamdani
  • Rodrigo Salazar-Gamarra
  • Luciano Lauria Dib
  • Aspalilah Alias
  • Mohd. Yusmiaidil Putera Mohd Yusof
  • Anand Marya


Photogrammetry, Smartphone, Dentition, Identity Recognition


Bitemark analysis is a challenging procedure in the field of criminal case investigation. The unique characteristics of dentition are used to find the best match between the existing patterned injury and the suspected perpetrator in bitemark identification. Bitemark analysis accuracy can be influenced by various factors, including biting pressure, tooth morphology, skin elasticity, dental cast duplication, timing, and image quality. This review article discusses the potential of a smartphone camera as an alternative method for 3D bitemark analysis. Bitemark evidence on human skin and food should be immediately recorded or duplicated to retrieve long-lasting proof, allowing for a sufficient examination period. Various studies utilizing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) technologies have been developed to obtain an adequate bitemark analysis. 3D imaging technology provides accurate and precise analysis. However, the currently available method using an intraoral scanner (IOS) requires high-cost specialized equipment and a well-trained operator. The numerous advantages of monoscopic photogrammetry may lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis in forensic odontology. Smartphone cameras and monoscopic photogrammetry methodology could lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis with an efficient cost and readily available equipment.


Litha, Girish HC, Murgod S, Savita JK. Gender determination by odontometric method. J Forensic Dent Sci 2017; 9(1):44. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfo.jfds_96_15

Kurniawan A, Agitha SRA, Margaretha MS, Utomo H, Chusida A, Sosiawan A, et al. The applicability of Willems dental age estimation method for Indonesian children population in Surabaya. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2020; 10(5). https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-020-0179-6

Chaudhary R, Doggalli N, Chandrakant H, Patil K. Current and evolving applications of three-dimensional printing in forensic odontology: A review. Int J Forensic Odontol 2018; 3(2):59-65. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijfo.ijfo_28_18

Kurniawan A. Determining the genuine and the imposter pair of the dental arch pattern through the 3D point cloud analysis for forensic identification. Int J Pharm Res 2020; 12(2):2121-5. https://doi.org/10.31838/ijpr/2020.12.02.286

Verma AK, Kumar S, Bhattacharya S. Identification of a person with the help of bite mark analysis. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2013; 3(2):88-91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2013.05.002

Tarvadi P, Manipady S, Shetty M. Intercanine distance and bite marks analysis using metric method. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2016; 6(4):445-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejfs.2016.11.001

The American Board of Forensic Odontology. ABFO Standards & Guidelines for Evaluating Bitemarks. 2018. Available from: https://abfo.org/resources/id-bitemark-guidelines/. [Accessed on June 10, 2021].

Shamata A, Thompson T. Documentation and analysis of traumatic injuries in clinical forensic medicine involving structured light three-dimensional surface scanning versus photography. J Forensic Leg Med 2018; 58:93-100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2018.05.004

Rai B, Kaur J. Bite Marks: Evidence and Analysis, Part 1. In: Rai B, Kaur J. Evidence-Based Forensic Dent. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013. pp 87-99. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-28994-1

Shah P, Velani PR, Lakade L, Dukle S. Teeth in forensics: A review. Indian J Dent Res 2019; 30(2):291-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_9_17

Giri S, Tripathi A, Patil R, Khanna V, Singh V. Analysis of bite marks in food stuffs by CBCT 3D-reconstruction. J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2019; 9(1):24-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2018.08.006

Saks MJ, Albright T, Bohan TL, Bierer BE, Bowers CM, Bush MA, et al. Forensic bitemark identification: Weak foundations, exaggerated claims. J Law Biosci 2016; 3(3):538-75. https://doi.org/10.1093/jlb/lsw045

Evans ST, Jones C, Plassmann P. 3D imaging for bite mark analysis. Imaging Sci J 2013; 61(4):351-60. https://doi.org/10.1179/1743131X11Y.0000000054

Marini MI, Angrosidy H, Kurniawan A, Margaretha MS. The anthropological analysis of the nasal morphology of Dayak Kenyah population in Indonesia as a basic data for forensic identification. Transl Res Anat 2020; 19:100064. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tria.2020.100064

Fournier G, Savall F, Nasr K, Telmon N, Maret D. Three-dimensional analysis of bitemarks using an intraoral scanner. Forensic Sci Int 2019; 301:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2019.05.006

Daniel MJ, Pazhani A. Accuracy of bite mark analysis from food substances: A comparative study. J Forensic Dent Sci 2015; 7(3):222-6. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-1475.172442

Kanaparthi A, Meundi M, David C, Mahesh D, Krishnappa S, Kastala R. Precision of 3D laser optical in assimilation of experimental bite marks in chocolate. J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol 2020; 32(3):259-65. https://doi.org/10.4103/jiaomr.jiaomr_84_20

Kurniawan A, Yodokawa K, Kosaka M, Ito K, Sasaki K, Aoki T, et al. Determining the effective number and surfaces of teeth for forensic dental identification through the 3D point cloud data analysis. Egypt J Forensic Sci 2020; 10:3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-020-0181-z

Atieh MA, Ritter AV, Ko CC, Duqum I. Accuracy evaluation of intraoral optical impressions: a clinical study using a reference appliance. J Prosthet Dent 2017; 118(3):400-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prosdent.2016.10.022

Khanna S. Exploring the 3rd dimension: application of 3d printing in forensic odontology. J Forensic Sci & Criminal Inves 2017; 3(3):JFSCI.MS.ID.555616. https://doi.org/10.19080/JFSCI.2017.03.555616

Abduo J, Elseyoufi M. Accuracy of intraoral scanners: a systematic review of influencing factors. Eur J Prosthodont Restor Dent 2018; 26(3):101-121. https://doi.org/10.1922/EJPRD_01752Abduo21

Richert R, Goujat A, Venet L, Viguie G, Viennot S, Robinson P, et al. Intraoral scanner technologies: a review to make a successful impression. J Healthc Eng 2017; 2017:8427595. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8427595

Mangano F, Gandolfi A, Luongo G, Logozzo S. Intraoral scanners in dentistry: a review of the current literature. BMC Oral Health 2017; 17(1):149. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12903-017-0442-x

Aswehlee AM, Elbashti ME, Hattori M, Sumita YI, Taniguchi H. Feasibility and accuracy of noncontact three-dimensional digitizers for geometric facial defects: an in vitro comparison. Int J Prosthodont 2018; 31(6):601-6. https://doi.org/10.11607/ijp.5855

Abduo J, Bennamoun M. Three-dimensional image registration as a tool for forensic odontology: a preliminary investigation. Am J Forensic Med Pathol 2013; 34(3):260-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/PAF.0b013e31829f6a29

Elbashti ME, Sumita YI, Aswehlee AM, Seelaus R. Smartphone application as a low-cost alternative for digitizing facial defects: is it accurate enough for clinical application? Int J Prosthodont 2019; 32(6):541-3. https://doi.org/10.11607/ijp.6347

Utomo H, Ruth MSMA, Wangsa LG, Salazar-Gamarra RE, Dib LL. Simple smartphone applications for superimposing 3D imagery in forensic dentistry. Dent J 2020; 53(1):50-6. https://doi.org/10.20473/j.djmkg.v53.i1.p50-56

Lange ID, Perry CT. A quick, easy and non-invasive method to quantify coral growth rates using photogrammetry and 3D model comparisons. Methods Ecol Evol 2020; 11(6):714-26. https://doi.org/10.1111/2041-210X.13388

Salazar-Gamarra R, Seelaus R, da Silva JV, da Silva AM, Dib LL. Monoscopic photogrammetry to obtain 3D models by a mobile device: a method for making facial prostheses. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2016; 45(1):33. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40463-016-0145-3

Hernandez A, Lemaire E. A smartphone photogrammetry method for digitizing prosthetic socket interiors. Prosthet Orthot Int 2017; 41(2):210-14. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309364616664150

Rokaya D, Kongkiatkamon S, Heboyan A, Dam VV, Amornvit P, Khurshid Z, et al. 3D-Printed Biomaterials in Biomedical Application. In: Jana S, Jana S. (eds) Functional Biomaterials. Springer, Singapore; 2022. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-16-7152-4_12




How to Cite

Kurniawan, A., Chusida, A., Utomo, H., Marini, M. I., Rizky, B. N., Prakoeswa, B. F. W., Hamdani, J., Salazar-Gamarra, R., Dib, L. L., Alias, A., Yusof, M. Y. P. M., & Marya, A. (2023). 3D Bitemark Analysis in Forensic Odontology Utilizing a Smartphone Camera and Open-Source Monoscopic Photogrammetry Surface Scanning. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 23, e220087. Retrieved from https://revista.uepb.edu.br/PBOCI/article/view/1701



Critical Review