Relationship of Dental Caries and Body Mass Index amongst School Children in Hail, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Keywords:Body Mass Index, Child, Dental Caries, Prevalence
AbstractObjective: To determine caries prevalence and its association with body mass index in school children between 9-12 years of age in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 524 school children 9-12 years of age. These children were selected from 9 Public schools in Hail Province. Dental caries was recorded as per criteria established by the World Health Organization using assessment form for children 2013. Children were weighed using an electronic scale nearest to 0.1 kg with children attired in light clothing and wearing no shoes. The height was measured using a stadiometer to the nearest full centimeter with the children in a standing position. Body Mass Index (BMI) was determined using the formula BMI = kg/m2. Results: Caries prevalence in the population was 86%. The comparisons of mean DMFT between the groups demonstrate higher scores in the overweight group (mean=2.43) compared to normal weight (mean=1.85) and underweight children (mean=1.56) which is statistically significant (p=0.000). Bonferroni Post hoc test to compare the underweight and overweight group (p=0.000) and overweight and normal weight (p=0.000) were highly significant. Conclusion: A positive correlation of caries severity, namely DMFT, with BMI is established.
Al Agili DE. A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Dent J 2013; 25(1):3-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sdentj.2012.10.002
Masood M, Yusof N, Hassan MI, Jaafar N. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children-results from 5-year retrospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2012; 12:989. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-12-989
Gidding SS, Dennison BA, Birch LL, Daniels SR, Gillman MW, Lichtenstein AH, et al. American Heart Association; American Academy of Pediatrics. Dietary recommendations for children and adolescents: A guide for practitioners: Consensus statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation 2005; 112(13):2061-75. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.169251
Loyola-Rodriguez JP, Villa-Chavez C, Patiñio-Marin N, Aradillas-Garcia C, Gonzalez C, de la Cruz-Mendoza E. Association between caries, obesity and insulin resistance in Mexican adolescents. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2011; 36(1):49-53. https://doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.36.1.e25411r576362262
Costacurta M, Di Renzo L, Bianchi A, Fabiocchi F, De Lorenzo A, Docimo R. Obesity and dental caries in paediatric patients. A cross-sectional study. Eur J Paediatr Dent 2011; 12(2):112-6. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-5156-8
Vázquez-Nava F, Vázquez-Rodríguez EM, Saldívar-González AH, Lin-Ochoa D, Martinez-Perales GM, Joffre-Velázquez VM. Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico. J Public Health Dent 2010; 70(2):124-30. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-7325.2009.00152.x
Yang F, Zhang Y, Yuan X, Yu J, Chen S, Chen Z, et al. Caries experience and its association with weight status among 8-year-old children in Qingdao, China. J Int Soc Prev Community Dent 2015; 5(1):52-8. https://doi.org/10.4103/2231-0762.151978
Habibullah MA, Alsughier Z, Elsherbini MS, Elmoazen RA. Caries Prevalence and its association with body mass index in children aged 4 to 10 years in Al Dulaymiah Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia – a pilot study. Inter J Dent Sci Res 2018; 6(29):29-32. https://doi.org/10.12691/ijdsr-6-2-2
World Health Organization. Oral Health Surveys: Basic Methods. 5th ed. WHO: Geneva: 2003.
Al‑Hussaini A, Bashir MS, Khormi M, AlTuraiki M, Alkhamis W, Alrajhi M, et al. Overweight and obesity among Saudi children and adolescents: Where do we stand today? Saudi J Gastroenterol 2019; 25(4):229-35. https://doi.org/10.4103/sjg.SJG_617_18
Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health. Study pdf [Internet]. Available from: http://www.moh.gov.sa/Ministry/MediaCenter/News/Pages/News-2014-03-09-001.aspx [Accessed on March 18, 2022]. [In Arabic].
Abu ME, Alasqah MN, Alqahtani FA, Alobaydaa MA, Alharbi MM, Kola Z. Intricate Evaluation of Association between Dental Caries and Obesity among the Children in Al-Kharj City (Saudi Arabia). J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18(1):29-33. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1983
Goodarzi A, Heidarnia A, Tavafian SS, Eslami M. Association between dental caries and body mass index-for-age among 10-12-year-old female students in Tehran. Inter J Prev Med 2019; 10:28. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijpvm.IJPVM_528_18
Farsi DJ, Elkhodary HM, Merdad LA, Farsi NM, Alaki SM, Alamoudi NM, Bakhaidar HA, Alolayyan MA. Prevalence of obesity in elementary school children and its association with dental caries. Saudi Med J 2016; 37(12):1387-94. https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2016.12.15904
Quadri MF, Hakimi BM, Asma AA, Hakami RY, Saadi FA, Ageeli FM, et al. Relation between dental caries and body mass index-for-age among schoolchildren of Jazan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. J Contemp Dent Pract 2017; 18(4):277-82. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-2031
Wening GR, Bramantoro T, Palupi R, Ramadhani A, Alvita D. Overview of dental caries severity and body mass index (BMI) on elementary school children. J Int Oral Health 2019; 11(Suppl S1):48-55. https://doi.org/10.4103/jioh.jioh_259_18
Ahmed TE, Abuaffan A. Correlation between body mass index and dental caries among a sample of Sudanese children. Braz Dent Sci 2015; 18(3):42-51. https://doi.org/10.14295/bds.2015.v18i3.1149
Swaminathan K, Anandan V, SelvaKumar H, Thomas E. Correlation between body mass index and dental caries among three-to 12-year-old schoolchildren in India: a cross-sectional study. Cureus 2019; 11(8):e5421. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5421
Alves LS, Susin C, Damé-Teixeira N, Maltz M. Overweight and obesity are not associated with dental caries among 12-year-old South Brazilian schoolchildren. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013; 41(3):224-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12010
Kumar S, Kroon J, Lalloo R, Kulkarni S, Johnson NW. Relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children, and the influence of socio-economic status. Int Dent J 2017; 67(2):91-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12259
Hayden C, Bowler JO, Chambers S, Freeman R, Humphris G, Richards D, et al. Obesity and dental caries in children: A systematic review and metaanalysis. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2013; 41(4):289-308. https://doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12014
Honne T, Pentapati K, Kumar N, Acharya S. Relationship between obesity/overweight status, sugar consumption and dental caries among adolescents in South India. Int J Dent Hyg 2012; 10(4):240-4. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1601-5037.2011.00534.x
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2023 Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.