Association of Socio-Demographic and Clinicopathological Risk Factors with Oral Cancers: A 19-Year Retrospective Study


  • Paras Ahmad
  • Anas Imran Arshad
  • Majid Jehangir
  • Rizwan Mahmood
  • Gul Muhammad Shaikh
  • Mohammad Khursheed Alam
  • Tang Liszen
  • Jawaad Ahmed Asif


Mouth Neoplasms, Carcinoma, Squamous Cell, Tongue Neoplasms, Salivary Gland Neoplasms


Objective: To determine the association of socio-demographic and clinic-pathological risk factors with oral cancer in Kelantan, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A 19-year cross-sectional survey was performed in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Malaysia. Medical record of 301 oral cancer patients was retrieved from the Medical Records office. Results: The majority of the oral cancer cases were male (62.8%), non-smokers (57.5%), non-alcohol consumers (83.4%), non-betel quid chewers (96.7%), and belonged to Malay ethnicity (68.8%). At the time of diagnosis, most of the patients were at stage II (38.9%). Approximately one-third (30.6%) of the total OC patients experienced loco-regional/distant metastasis, whereas no metastasis was detected in around two-thirds of cases (69.4%). A combination of surgery and radiotherapy was the most commonly employed treatment modality (27.2%). At the time of this study, the survival status of most of the patients was alive (69.1%). The most frequently encountered oral cancer in the Kelantanese population was oral squamous cell carcinoma (70.1%), with the tongue being the most frequently involved oral cavity site (35.5%). Conclusion: More than three-fourths of the cases were alive at follow-up, which included the cases that did not undergo any form of treatment.


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How to Cite

Ahmad, P. ., Arshad, A. I. ., Jehangir, M. ., Mahmood, R. ., Shaikh, G. M. ., Alam, M. K. ., Liszen, T. ., & Asif, J. A. . (2021). Association of Socio-Demographic and Clinicopathological Risk Factors with Oral Cancers: A 19-Year Retrospective Study. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 21, e0037. Retrieved from



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