Effect of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries on the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study


  • Sunil S. Nayak
  • Abhay Taranath Kamath
  • Sreea Roy
  • Vanishri S. Nayak


Maxillofacial Injuries, Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic, Tooth Avulsion


Objective: To assess the influence of oral and maxillofacial trauma on the development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and to determine the efficiency of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) as a diagnostic tool for detecting PTSD in patients with Oral and Maxillofacial injuries. Material and Methods: PTSD was assessed one month postoperatively by the diagnostic instrument, IES-R, to arrive at a provisional diagnosis. A structured clinician-administered PTSD Scale then assessed the patients for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th edition (CAPS-5) to establish a final diagnosis. The assessment of the severity of PTSD was done based on various types of oral and maxillofacial injuries. Results: The IES-R scale provisionally diagnosed 54 subjects with PTSD, out of which 42 were diagnosed to have PTSD by the CAPS-5 scale. Subjects with injuries involving the ‘orbital complex,’ those presenting with a perceptible scar in the maxillofacial region and with multiple avulsed/ luxated anterior teeth, showed a higher affinity to develop PTSD, and this was statistically significant. Conclusion: Higher levels of PTSD in patients with injuries to the maxillofacial region warrants correct diagnosis and detection, and hence the maxillofacial surgeon plays a vital role in this regard. The IES-R is a useful diagnostic tool to detect PTSD early.


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How to Cite

Nayak, S. S. ., Kamath, A. T. ., Roy, S. ., & Nayak, V. S. . (2021). Effect of Oral and Maxillofacial Injuries on the Development of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Study. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 21, e0119. Retrieved from https://revista.uepb.edu.br/PBOCI/article/view/659



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