Self-Report Measurement of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Caused by COVID-19 Pandemic in Senior Undergraduate Dental Students


  • Gül Keskin


COVID-19, Mental Health, Dental Students, Depression, Anxiety


Objective: To evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on senior undergraduate dental students' psychological health by measuring depression, anxiety, and stress levels. Material and Methods: 259 fifth-year dental students participated in this study, including 156 females (60.2%) and 103 males (39.8%), aged 20–25. An online-based questionnaire was created, including a few questions about learning, post-graduation challenges, and fear of the virus exposure. Students were asked to define their acute anxiety state by visual facial anxiety scale (VFAS) and depression, anxiety, and stress levels by The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-42). All data were analyzed statistically. Results: Participants stated online learning platforms were insufficient for clinical competence (91.5%), the COVID-19 pandemic changed post-graduation career perspectives (29.3%), and they feared exposure to COVID-19 while performing their profession (82.6%). Acute anxiety levels of the students were recorded as 95.4% mild to highest. Mild to extremely severe depression, anxiety, and stress scores of the participants were 82.1%, 79.6%, and 72.9%, respectively. Higher mean values for all depression, anxiety, and stress parameters were obtained in females than males (p<0.05). Conclusion: Data showed that the psychological health of senior undergraduate dental students had been affected adversely due to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Choi EPH, Hui BPH, Wan EYF. Depression and anxiety in Hong Kong during COVID-19. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020; 17(10):3740.

Dubey S, Biswas P, Ghosh R, Chatterjee S, Dubey MJ, Lahiri D, et al. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020; 14(5):779-88.

Tran BX, Nguyen HT, Le HT, Latkin CA, Pham HQ, Vu LG, et al. Impact of COVID-19 on economic well-being and quality of life of the Vietnamese during the national social distancing. Front Psychol 2020; 11:565153.

Kecojevic ABC, Sullivan M, Davi NK. The impact of the COVID-19 epidemic on mental health of undergraduate students in New Jersey, cross-sectional study. PloS one 2020; 15(9):e0239696.

Gerreth K, Chlapowska J, Lewicka-Panczak K, Sniatala R, Ekkert M, Borysewicz-Lewicka M. Self-evaluation of anxiety in dental students. Biomed Res Int 2019; 2019:6436750.

Basudan S, Binanzan N, Alhassan A. Depression, anxiety and stress in dental students. Int J Med Educ 2017; 8:179-86.

Cooper CL, Watts J, Kelly M. Job satisfaction, mental health, and job stressors among general dental practitioners in the UK. Br Dent J 1987; 162(2):77-81.

Rehmani N, Khan QA, Fatima SS. Stress, anxiety and depression in students of a private medical school in Karachi, Pakistan. Pak J Med Sci 2018; 34(3):696-701.

Wang C, Pan R, Wan X, Tan Y, Xu L, McIntyre RS, et al. A longitudinal study on the mental health of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Brain Behav Immun 2020; 87:40-8.

Le HT, Lai AJX, Sun J, Hoang MT, Vu LG, Pham HQ, et al. Anxiety and depression among people under the nationwide partial lockdown in Vietnam. Front Public Health 2020; 8:589359.

Tee ML, Tee CA, Anlacan JP, Aligam KJG, Reyes PWC, Kuruchittham V, et al. Psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines. J Affect Disord 2020; 277:379-91.

Stormon N, Ford PJ, Kisely S, Bartle E, Eley DS. Depression, anxiety and stress in a cohort of Australian dentistry students. Eur J Dent Educ 2019; 23(4):507-14.




How to Cite

Keskin, G. . (2021). Self-Report Measurement of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Caused by COVID-19 Pandemic in Senior Undergraduate Dental Students. Pesquisa Brasileira Em Odontopediatria E Clínica Integrada, 21, e0243. Retrieved from



Original Articles